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- ItemHuman spermbots for patient-representative 3D ovarian cancer cell treatment(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2020) Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Zhang, Wunan; Seaton, Melanie P. H.; Brison, Daniel R.; Edmondson, Richard J.; Taylor, Stephen S.; Nelson, Louisa; Zeng, Kang; Bagley, Steven; Ribeiro, Carla; Restrepo, Lina P.; Lucena, Elkin; Schmidt, Christine K.; Schmidt, Oliver G.Cellular micromotors are attractive for locally delivering high concentrations of drug, and targeting hard-to-reach disease sites such as cervical cancer and early ovarian cancer lesions by non-invasive means. Spermatozoa are highly efficient micromotors perfectly adapted to traveling up the female reproductive system. Indeed, bovine sperm-based micromotors have shown potential to carry drugs toward gynecological cancers. However, due to major differences in the molecular make-up of bovine and human sperm, a key translational bottleneck for bringing this technology closer to the clinic is to transfer this concept to human material. Here, we successfully load human sperm with Doxorubicin (DOX) and perform treatment of 3D cervical cancer and patient-representative ovarian cancer cell cultures, resulting in strong anticancer cell effects. Additionally, we define the subcellular localization of the chemotherapeutic drug within human sperm, using high-resolution optical microscopy. We also assess drug effects on sperm motility and viability over time, employing sperm samples from healthy donors as well as assisted reproduction patients. Finally, we demonstrate guidance and release of human drug-loaded sperm onto cancer tissues using magnetic microcaps, and show the sperm microcap loaded with a second anticancer drug, camptothecin (CPT), which unlike DOX is not suitable for directly loading into sperm due to its hydrophobic nature. This co-drug delivery approach opens up novel targeted combinatorial drug therapies for future applications. © 2020 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemIntegrated molecular diode as 10 MHz half-wave rectifier based on an organic nanostructure heterojunction([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020) Li, Tianming; Bandari, Vineeth Kumar; Hantusch, Martin; Xin, Jianhui; Kuhrt, Robert; Ravishankar, Rachappa; Xu, Longqian; Zhang, Jidong; Knupfer, Martin; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Donghang; Schmidt, Oliver G.Considerable efforts have been made to realize nanoscale diodes based on single molecules or molecular ensembles for implementing the concept of molecular electronics. However, so far, functional molecular diodes have only been demonstrated in the very low alternating current frequency regime, which is partially due to their extremely low conductance and the poor degree of device integration. Here, we report about fully integrated rectifiers with microtubular soft-contacts, which are based on a molecularly thin organic heterojunction and are able to convert alternating current with a frequency of up to 10 MHz. The unidirectional current behavior of our devices originates mainly from the intrinsically different surfaces of the bottom planar and top microtubular Au electrodes while the excellent high frequency response benefits from the charge accumulation in the phthalocyanine molecular heterojunction, which not only improves the charge injection but also increases the carrier density.
- ItemMolecularly Engineered Black Phosphorus Heterostructures with Improved Ambient Stability and Enhanced Charge Carrier Mobility(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Shi, Huanhuan; Fu, Shuai; Liu, Yannan; Neumann, Christof; Wang, Mingchao; Dong, Haiyun; Kot, Piotr; Bonn, Mischa; Wang, Hai I.; Turchanin, Andrey; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Shaygan Nia, Ali; Yang, Sheng; Feng, XinliangOvercoming the intrinsic instability and preserving unique electronic properties are key challenges for the practical applications of black phosphorus (BP) under ambient conditions. Here, it is demonstrated that molecular heterostructures of BP and hexaazatriphenylene derivatives (BP/HATs) enable improved environmental stability and charge transport properties. The strong interfacial coupling and charge transfer between the HATs and the BP lattice decrease the surface electron density and protect BP sheets from oxidation, resulting in an excellent ambient lifetime of up to 21 d. Importantly, HATs increase the charge scattering time of BP, contributing to an improved carrier mobility of 97 cm2 V-1 s-1 , almost three times of the pristine BP films, based on noninvasive THz spectroscopic studies. The film mobility is an order of magnitude larger than previously reported values in exfoliated 2D materials. The strategy opens up new avenues for versatile applications of BP sheets and provides an effective method for tuning the physicochemical properties of other air-sensitive 2D semiconductors.
- ItemDigital Electrochemistry for On-Chip Heterogeneous Material Integration(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Bao, Bin; Rivkin, Boris; Akbar, Farzin; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Bandari, Vineeth Kumar; Teuerle, Laura; Becker, Christian; Baunack, Stefan; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Schmidt, Oliver G.Many modern electronic applications rely on functional units arranged in an active-matrix integrated on a single chip. The active-matrix allows numerous identical device pixels to be addressed within a single system. However, next-generation electronics requires heterogeneous integration of dissimilar devices, where sensors, actuators, and display pixels sense and interact with the local environment. Heterogeneous material integration allows the reduction of size, increase of functionality, and enhancement of performance; however, it is challenging since front-end fabrication technologies in microelectronics put extremely high demands on materials, fabrication protocols, and processing environments. To overcome the obstacle in heterogeneous material integration, digital electrochemistry is explored here, which site-selectively carries out electrochemical processes to deposit and address electroactive materials within the pixel array. More specifically, an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistor (TFT) active-matrix is used to address pixels within the matrix and locally control electrochemical reactions for material growth and actuation. The digital electrochemistry procedure is studied in-depth by using polypyrrole (PPy) as a model material. Active-matrix-driven multicolored electrochromic patterns and actuator arrays are fabricated to demonstrate the capabilities of this approach for material integration. The approach can be extended to a broad range of materials and structures, opening up a new path for advanced heterogeneous microsystem integration.
- ItemBiofunctionalized self-propelled micromotors as an alternative on-chip concentrating system(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; Meyer, Anne K.; Helbig, Linda; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.Sample pre-concentration is crucial to achieve high sensitivity and low detection limits in lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we present a system in which self-propelled catalytic micromotors are biofunctionalized and trapped acting as an alternative concentrating mechanism. This system requires no external energy source, which facilitates integration and miniaturization.
- ItemSelf‐assembled on‐chip‐integrated giant magneto‐impedance sensorics(Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2015) Karnaushenko, Daniil; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Makarov, Denys; Baunack, Stefan; Schäfer, Rudolf; Schmidt, Oliver G.A novel method relying on strain engineering to realize arrays of on‐chip‐integrated giant magneto‐impedance (GMI) sensors equipped with pick‐up coils is put forth. The geometrical transformation of an initially planar layout into a tubular 3D architecture stabilizes favorable azimuthal magnetic domain patterns. This work creates a solid foundation for further development of CMOS compatible GMI sensorics for magnetoencephalography.
- ItemSystem-Engineered Miniaturized Robots: From Structure to Intelligence(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2021) Bandari, Vineeth Kumar; Schmidt, Oliver G.The development of small machines, once envisioned by Feynman decades ago, has stimulated significant research in materials science, robotics, and computer science. Over the past years, the field of miniaturized robotics has rapidly expanded with many research groups contributing to the numerous challenges inherent to this field. Smart materials have played a particularly important role as they have imparted miniaturized robots with new functionalities and distinct capabilities. However, despite all efforts and many available soft materials and innovative technologies, a fully autonomous system-engineered miniaturized robot (SEMR) of any practical relevance has not been developed yet. In this review, the foundation of SEMRs is discussed and six main areas (structure, motion, sensing, actuation, energy, and intelligence) which require particular efforts to push the frontiers of SEMRs further are identified. During the past decade, miniaturized robotic research has mainly relied on simplicity in design, and fabrication. A careful examination of current SEMRs that are physically, mechanically, and electrically engineered shows that they fall short in many ways concerning miniaturization, full-scale integration, and self-sufficiency. Some of these issues have been identified in this review. Some are inevitably yet to be explored, thus, allowing to set the stage for the next generation of intelligent, and autonomously operating SEMRs.
- ItemSilicon-Based Integrated Label-Free Optofluidic Biosensors: Latest Advances and Roadmap(Weinheim : Wiley, 2020) Wang, Jiawei; Medina Sanchez, Mariana; Yin, Yin; Herzer, Raffael; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G.By virtue of the well-developed micro- and nanofabrication technologies and rapidly progressing surface functionalization strategies, silicon-based devices have been widely recognized as a highly promising platform for the next-generation lab-on-a-chip bioanalytical systems with a great potential for point-of-care medical diagnostics. Herein, an overview of the latest advances in silicon-based integrated optofluidic label-free biosensing technologies relying on the efficient interactions between the evanescent light field at the functionalized surface and specifically bound analytes is presented. State-of-the-art technologies demonstrating label-free evanescent wave-based biomarker detection mainly encompass three device configurations, including on-chip waveguide-based interferometers, microring resonators, and photonic-crystal-based cavities. Moreover, up-to-date strategies for elevating the sensitivities and also simplifying the sensing processes are discussed. Emerging laboratory prototypes with advanced integration and packaging schemes incorporating automatic microfluidic components or on-chip optoelectronic devices lead to one significant step forward in real applications of decentralized diagnostics. Besides, particular attention is paid to currently commercialized label-free optical bioanalytical models on the market. Finally, the prospects are elaborated with several research routes toward chip-scale, low-cost, highly sensitive, multi-functional, and user-friendly bioanalytical systems benefiting to global healthcare. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemSperm-Hybrid Micromotor for Targeted Drug Delivery(Washington, DC : Soc., 2017-12-13) Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Magdanz, Veronika; Schwarz, Lukas; Hebenstreit, Franziska; Schmidt, Oliver G.A sperm-driven micromotor is presented as a targeted drug delivery system, which is appealing to potentially treat diseases in the female reproductive tract. This system is demonstrated to be an efficient drug delivery vehicle by first loading a motile sperm cell with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride), guiding it magnetically, to an in vitro cultured tumor spheroid, and finally freeing the sperm cell to deliver the drug locally. The sperm release mechanism is designed to liberate the sperm when the biohybrid micromotor hits the tumor walls, allowing it to swim into the tumor and deliver the drug through the sperm–cancer cell membrane fusion. In our experiments, the sperm cells exhibited a high drug encapsulation capability and drug carrying stability, conveniently minimizing toxic side effects and unwanted drug accumulation in healthy tissues. Overall, sperm cells are excellent candidates to operate in physiological environments, as they neither express pathogenic proteins nor proliferate to form undesirable colonies, unlike other cells or microorganisms. This sperm-hybrid micromotor is a biocompatible platform with potential application in gynecological healthcare, treating or detecting cancer or other diseases in the female reproductive system.
- ItemHigh-performance giant magnetoresistive sensorics on flexible Si membranes(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2015) Pérez, Nicolás; Melzer, Michael; Makarov, Denys; Ueberschär, Olaf; Ecke, Ramona; Schulz, Stefan E.; Schmidt, Oliver G.We fabricate high-performance giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensorics on Si wafers, which are subsequently thinned down to 100 μm or 50 μm to realize mechanically flexible sensing elements. The performance of the GMR sensors upon bending is determined by the thickness of the Si membrane. Thus, bending radii down to 15.5 mm and 6.8 mm are achieved for the devices on 100 μm and 50 μm Si supports, respectively. The GMR magnitude remains unchanged at the level of (15.3 ± 0.4)% independent of the support thickness and bending radius. However, a progressive broadening of the GMR curve is observed associated with the magnetostriction of the containing Ni81Fe19 alloy, which is induced by the tensile bending strain generated on the surface of the Si membrane. An effective magnetostriction value of λs = 1.7 × 10−6 is estimated for the GMR stack. Cyclic bending experiments showed excellent reproducibility of the GMR curves during 100 bending cycles.