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Now showing 1 - 10 of 25
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    Engineering new limits to magnetostriction through metastability in iron-gallium alloys
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Meisenheimer, P.B.; Steinhardt, R.A.; Sung, S.H.; Williams, L.D.; Zhuang, S.; Nowakowski, M.E.; Novakov, S.; Torunbalci, M.M.; Prasad, B.; Zollner, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Dawley, N.M.; Schubert, J.; Hunter, A.H.; Manipatruni, S.; Nikonov, D.E.; Young, I.A.; Chen, L.Q.; Bokor, J.; Bhave, S.A.; Ramesh, R.; Hu, J.-M.; Kioupakis, E.; Hovden, R.; Schlom, D.G.; Heron, J.T.
    Magnetostrictive materials transduce magnetic and mechanical energies and when combined with piezoelectric elements, evoke magnetoelectric transduction for high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors and energy-efficient beyond-CMOS technologies. The dearth of ductile, rare-earth-free materials with high magnetostrictive coefficients motivates the discovery of superior materials. Fe1−xGax alloys are amongst the highest performing rare-earth-free magnetostrictive materials; however, magnetostriction becomes sharply suppressed beyond x = 19% due to the formation of a parasitic ordered intermetallic phase. Here, we harness epitaxy to extend the stability of the BCC Fe1−xGax alloy to gallium compositions as high as x = 30% and in so doing dramatically boost the magnetostriction by as much as 10x relative to the bulk and 2x larger than canonical rare-earth based magnetostrictors. A Fe1−xGax − [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7−[PbTiO3]0.3 (PMN-PT) composite magnetoelectric shows robust 90° electrical switching of magnetic anisotropy and a converse magnetoelectric coefficient of 2.0 × 10−5 s m−1. When optimally scaled, this high coefficient implies stable switching at ~80 aJ per bit.
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    3,3-Difluoroallyl ammonium salts: highly versatile, stable and selective gem-difluoroallylation reagents
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Ye, Fei; Ge, Yao; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Xu, Li-Wen; Beller, Matthias
    The selective synthesis of fluorinated organic molecules continues to be of major importance for the development of bioactive compounds (agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals) as well as unique materials. Among the established synthetic toolbox for incorporation of fluorine-containing units, efficient and general reagents for introducing -CF2- groups have been largely neglected. Here, we present the synthesis of 3,3-difluoropropen-1-yl ammonium salts (DFPAs) as stable, and scalable gem-difluoromethylation reagents, which allow for the direct reaction with a wide range of fascinating nucleophiles. DFPAs smoothly react with N-, O-, S-, Se-, and C-nucleophiles under mild conditions without necessity of metal catalysts with exclusive regioselectivity. In this way, the presented reagents also permit the straightforward preparation of many analogues of existing pharmaceuticals.
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    Towards tellurium-free thermoelectric modules for power generation from low-grade heat
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Ying, Pingjun; He, Ran; Mao, Jun; Zhang, Qihao; Reith, Heiko; Sui, Jiehe; Ren, Zhifeng; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schierning, Gabi
    Thermoelectric technology converts heat into electricity directly and is a promising source of clean electricity. Commercial thermoelectric modules have relied on Bi2Te3-based compounds because of their unparalleled thermoelectric properties at temperatures associated with low-grade heat (<550 K). However, the scarcity of elemental Te greatly limits the applicability of such modules. Here we report the performance of thermoelectric modules assembled from Bi2Te3-substitute compounds, including p-type MgAgSb and n-type Mg3(Sb,Bi)2, by using a simple, versatile, and thus scalable processing routine. For a temperature difference of ~250 K, whereas a single-stage module displayed a conversion efficiency of ~6.5%, a module using segmented n-type legs displayed a record efficiency of ~7.0% that is comparable to the state-of-the-art Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric modules. Our work demonstrates the feasibility and scalability of high-performance thermoelectric modules based on sustainable elements for recovering low-grade heat.
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    Ultracold atom interferometry in space
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Lachmann, Maike D.; Ahlers, Holger; Becker, Dennis; Dinkelaker, Aline N.; Grosse, Jens; Hellmig, Ortwin; Müntinga, Hauke; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Seidel, Stephan T.; Wendrich, Thijs; Wenzlawski, André; Carrick, Benjamin; Gaaloul, Naceur; Lüdtke, Daniel; Braxmaier, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Krutzik, Markus; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Peters, Achim; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Sengstock, Klaus; Wicht, Andreas; Windpassinger, Patrick; Rasel, Ernst M.
    Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in free fall constitute a promising source for space-borne interferometry. Indeed, BECs enjoy a slowly expanding wave function, display a large spatial coherence and can be engineered and probed by optical techniques. Here we explore matter-wave fringes of multiple spinor components of a BEC released in free fall employing light-pulses to drive Bragg processes and induce phase imprinting on a sounding rocket. The prevailing microgravity played a crucial role in the observation of these interferences which not only reveal the spatial coherence of the condensates but also allow us to measure differential forces. Our work marks the beginning of matter-wave interferometry in space with future applications in fundamental physics, navigation and earth observation.
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    Alternative carbon price trajectories can avoid excessive carbon removal
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Strefler, Jessica; Kriegler, Elmar; Bauer, Nico; Luderer, Gunnar; Pietzcker, Robert C.; Giannousakis, Anastasis; Edenhofer, Ottmar
    The large majority of climate change mitigation scenarios that hold warming below 2 °C show high deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR), resulting in a peak-and-decline behavior in global temperature. This is driven by the assumption of an exponentially increasing carbon price trajectory which is perceived to be economically optimal for meeting a carbon budget. However, this optimality relies on the assumption that a finite carbon budget associated with a temperature target is filled up steadily over time. The availability of net carbon removals invalidates this assumption and therefore a different carbon price trajectory should be chosen. We show how the optimal carbon price path for remaining well below 2 °C limits CDR demand and analyze requirements for constructing alternatives, which may be easier to implement in reality. We show that warming can be held at well below 2 °C at much lower long-term economic effort and lower CDR deployment and therefore lower risks if carbon prices are high enough in the beginning to ensure target compliance, but increase at a lower rate after carbon neutrality has been reached.
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    Optoregulated force application to cellular receptors using molecular motors
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Zheng, Yijun; Han, Mitchell K.L.; Zhao, Renping; Blass, Johanna; Zhang, Jingnan; Zhou, Dennis W.; Colard-Itté, Jean-Rémy; Dattler, Damien; Çolak, Arzu; Hoth, Markus; García, Andrés J.; Qu, Bin; Bennewitz, Roland; Giuseppone, Nicolas; del Campo, Aránzazu
    Progress in our understanding of mechanotransduction events requires noninvasive methods for the manipulation of forces at molecular scale in physiological environments. Inspired by cellular mechanisms for force application (i.e. motor proteins pulling on cytoskeletal fibers), we present a unique molecular machine that can apply forces at cell-matrix and cell-cell junctions using light as an energy source. The key actuator is a light-driven rotatory molecular motor linked to polymer chains, which is intercalated between a membrane receptor and an engineered biointerface. The light-driven actuation of the molecular motor is converted in mechanical twisting of the entangled polymer chains, which will in turn effectively “pull” on engaged cell membrane receptors (e.g., integrins, T cell receptors) within the illuminated area. Applied forces have physiologically-relevant magnitude and occur at time scales within the relevant ranges for mechanotransduction at cell-friendly exposure conditions, as demonstrated in force-dependent focal adhesion maturation and T cell activation experiments. Our results reveal the potential of nanomotors for the manipulation of living cells at the molecular scale and demonstrate a functionality which at the moment cannot be achieved by other technologies for force application.
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    The multi-photon induced Fano effect
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Litvinenko, K.L.; Le, Nguyen H.; Redlich, B.; Pidgeon, C.R.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Andreev, Y.; Huang, Zhiming; Murdin, B.N.
    The ordinary Fano effect occurs in many-electron atoms and requires an autoionizing state. With such a state, photo-ionization may proceed via pathways that interfere, and the characteristic asymmetric resonance structures appear in the continuum. Here we demonstrate that Fano structure may also be induced without need of auto-ionization, by dressing the continuum with an ordinary bound state in any atom by a coupling laser. Using multi-photon processes gives complete, ultra-fast control over the interference. We show that a line-shape index q near unity (maximum asymmetry) may be produced in hydrogenic silicon donors with a relatively weak beam. Since the Fano lineshape has both constructive and destructive interference, the laser control opens the possibility of state-selective detection with enhancement on one side of resonance and invisibility on the other. We discuss a variety of atomic and molecular spectroscopies, and in the case of silicon donors we provide a calculation for a qubit readout application.
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    Investment incentive reduced by climate damages can be restored by optimal policy
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Willner, Sven N.; Glanemann, Nicole; Levermann, Anders
    Increasing greenhouse gas emissions are likely to impact not only natural systems but economies worldwide. If these impacts alter future economic development, the financial losses will be significantly higher than the mere direct damages. So far, potentially aggravating investment responses were considered negligible. Here we consistently incorporate an empirically derived temperature-growth relation into the simple integrated assessment model DICE. In this framework we show that, if in the next eight decades varying temperatures impact economic growth as has been observed in the past three decades, income is reduced by ~ 20% compared to an economy unaffected by climate change. Hereof ~ 40% are losses due to growth effects of which ~ 50% result from reduced incentive to invest. This additional income loss arises from a reduced incentive for future investment in anticipation of a reduced return and not from an explicit climate protection policy. Under economically optimal climate-change mitigation, however, optimal investment would only be reduced marginally as mitigation efforts keep returns high.
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    Nano-biosupercapacitors enable autarkic sensor operation in blood
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Lee, Yeji; Bandari, Vineeth Kumar; Li, Zhe; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Maitz, Manfred F.; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Today’s smallest energy storage devices for in-vivo applications are larger than 3 mm3 and lack the ability to continuously drive the complex functions of smart dust electronic and microrobotic systems. Here, we create a tubular biosupercapacitor occupying a mere volume of 1/1000 mm3 (=1 nanoliter), yet delivering up to 1.6 V in blood. The tubular geometry of this nano-biosupercapacitor provides efficient self-protection against external forces from pulsating blood or muscle contraction. Redox enzymes and living cells, naturally present in blood boost the performance of the device by 40% and help to solve the self-discharging problem persistently encountered by miniaturized supercapacitors. At full capacity, the nano-biosupercapacitors drive a complex integrated sensor system to measure the pH-value in blood. This demonstration opens up opportunities for next generation intravascular implants and microrobotic systems operating in hard-to-reach small spaces deep inside the human body.
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    Phase-enabled metal-organic framework homojunction for highly selective CO2 photoreduction
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Liu, Yannan; Chen, Chuanshuang; Valdez, Jesus; Meira, Debora Motta; He, Wanting; Wang, Yong; Harnagea, Catalin; Lu, Qiongquiong; Guner, Tugrul; Wang, Hao; Liu, Cheng-Hao; Zhang, Qingzhe; Huang, Shengyun; Yurtsever, Aycan; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling
    Conversion of clean solar energy to chemical fuels is one of the promising and up-and-coming applications of metal–organic frameworks. However, fast recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in these frameworks remains the most significant limitation for their photocatalytic application. Although the construction of homojunctions is a promising solution, it remains very challenging to synthesize them. Herein, we report a well-defined hierarchical homojunction based on metal–organic frameworks via a facile one-pot synthesis route directed by hollow transition metal nanoparticles. The homojunction is enabled by two concentric stacked nanoplates with slightly different crystal phases. The enhanced charge separation in the homojunction was visualized by in-situ surface photovoltage microscopy. Moreover, the as-prepared nanostacks displayed a visible-light-driven carbon dioxide reduction with very high carbon monooxide selectivity, and excellent stability. Our work provides a powerful platform to synthesize capable metal–organic framework complexes and sheds light on the hierarchical structure-function relationships of metal–organic frameworks.