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Now showing 1 - 10 of 320
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    Promoting abnormal grain growth in Fe-based shape memory alloys through compositional adjustments
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Vollmer, M.; Arold, T.; Kriegel, M.J.; Klemm, V.; Degener, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Niendorf, T.
    Iron-based shape memory alloys are promising candidates for large-scale structural applications due to their cost efficiency and the possibility of using conventional processing routes from the steel industry. However, recently developed alloy systems like Fe–Mn–Al–Ni suffer from low recoverability if the grains do not completely cover the sample cross-section. To overcome this issue, here we show that small amounts of titanium added to Fe–Mn–Al–Ni significantly enhance abnormal grain growth due to a considerable refinement of the subgrain sizes, whereas small amounts of chromium lead to a strong inhibition of abnormal grain growth. By tailoring and promoting abnormal grain growth it is possible to obtain very large single crystalline bars. We expect that the findings of the present study regarding the elementary mechanisms of abnormal grain growth and the role of chemical composition can be applied to tailor other alloy systems with similar microstructural features.
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    Dynamic volume magnetic domain wall imaging in grain oriented electrical steel at power frequencies with accumulative high-frame rate neutron dark-field imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Harti, R.P.; Strobl, M.; Schäfer, R.; Kardjilov, N.; Tremsin, A.S.; Grünzweig, C.
    The mobility of magnetic domains forms the link between the basic physical properties of a magnetic material and its global characteristics such as permeability and saturation field. Most commonly, surface domain structure are studied using magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The limited information depth of approx. 20 nanometers, however, allows only for an indirect interpretation of the internal volume domain structures. Here we show how accumulative high-frame rate dynamic neutron dark-field imaging is able for the first time to visualize the dynamic of the volume magnetic domain structures in grain oriented electrical steel laminations at power frequencies. In particular we studied the volume domain structures with a spatial resolution of ∼100 μm and successfully quantified domain sizes, wall velocities, domain annihilation and its duration and domain wall multiplication in real time recordings at power frequencies of 10, 25 and 50 Hz with ±262.5 A/m and ±525 A/m (peak to peak) applied field.
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    Effect of nematic ordering on electronic structure of FeSe
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Fedorov, A.; Yaresko, A.; Kim, T.K.; Kushnirenko, Y.; Haubold, E.; Wolf, T.; Hoesch, M.; Grüneis, A.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S.V.
    Electronically driven nematic order is often considered as an essential ingredient of high-temperature superconductivity. Its elusive nature in iron-based superconductors resulted in a controversy not only as regards its origin but also as to the degree of its influence on the electronic structure even in the simplest representative material FeSe. Here we utilized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations to study the influence of the nematic order on the electronic structure of FeSe and determine its exact energy and momentum scales. Our results strongly suggest that the nematicity in FeSe is electronically driven, we resolve the recent controversy and provide the necessary quantitative experimental basis for a successful theory of superconductivity in iron-based materials which takes into account both, spin-orbit interaction and electronic nematicity.
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    Ordered states in the Kitaev-Heisenberg model: From 1D chains to 2D honeycomb
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Agrapidis, Cliò Efthimia; van den Brink, Jeroen; Nishimoto, Satoshi
    We study the ground state of the 1D Kitaev-Heisenberg (KH) model using the density-matrix renormalization group and Lanczos exact diagonalization methods. We obtain a rich ground-state phase diagram as a function of the ratio between Heisenberg (J = cosϕ) and Kitaev (K = sinϕ) interactions. Depending on the ratio, the system exhibits four long-range ordered states: ferromagnetic-z, ferromagnetic-xy, staggered-xy, Néel-z, and two liquid states: Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and spiral-xy. The two Kitaev points ϕ=π2 and φ=3π2 are singular. The ϕ-dependent phase diagram is similar to that for the 2D honeycomb-lattice KH model. Remarkably, all the ordered states of the honeycomb-lattice KH model can be interpreted in terms of the coupled KH chains. We also discuss the magnetic structure of the K-intercalated RuCl3, a potential Kitaev material, in the framework of the 1D KH model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the low-lying excitations of the 1D KH Hamiltonian can be explained within the combination of the known six-vertex model and spin-wave theory.
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    Glycosaminoglycan-based hydrogels to modulate heterocellular communication in in vitro angiogenesis models
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2014) Chwalek, K.; Tsurkan, M.V.; Freudenberg, U.; Werner, C.
    Angiogenesis, the outgrowth of blood vessels, is crucial in development, disease and regeneration. Studying angiogenesis in vitro remains challenging because the capillary morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) is controlled by multiple exogenous signals. Therefore, a set of in situ-forming starPEG-heparin hydrogels was used to identify matrix parameters and cellular interactions that best support EC morphogenesis. We showed that a particular type of soft, matrix metalloproteinase-degradable hydrogel containing covalently bound integrin ligands and reversibly conjugated pro-angiogenic growth factors could boost the development of highly branched, interconnected, and lumenized endothelial capillary networks. Using these effective matrix conditions, 3D heterocellular interactions of ECs with different mural cells were demonstrated that enabled EC network modulation and maintenance of stable vascular capillaries over periods of about one month in vitro. The approach was also shown to permit in vitro tumor vascularization experiments with unprecedented levels of control over both ECs and tumor cells. In total, the introduced 3D hydrogel co-culture system could offer unique options for dissecting and adjusting biochemical, biophysical, and cell-cell triggers in tissue-related vascularization models.
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    Multiple fermion scattering in the weakly coupled spin-chain compound YbAlO3
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Nikitin, S.; Nishimoto, S.; Fan, Y.; Wu, J.; Wu, L.; Sukhanov, A.; Brando, M.; Pavlovskii, N.; Xu, J.; Vasylechko, L.; Yu, R.; Podlesnyak, A.
    The Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, originally introduced almost a century ago, is one of the best studied models in quantum mechanics due to its exact solution, but nevertheless it continues to present new discoveries. Its low-energy physics is described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid of spinless fermions, similar to the conduction electrons in one-dimensional metals. In this work we investigate the Heisenberg spin-chain compound YbAlO3 and show that the weak interchain coupling causes Umklapp scattering between the left- and right-moving fermions and stabilizes an incommensurate spin-density wave order at q = 2kF under finite magnetic fields. These Umklapp processes open a route to multiple coherent scattering of fermions, which results in the formation of satellites at integer multiples of the incommensurate fundamental wavevector Q = nq. Our work provides surprising and profound insight into bandstructure control for emergent fermions in quantum materials, and shows how neutron diffraction can be applied to investigate the phenomenon of coherent multiple scattering in metals through the proxy of quantum magnetic systems.
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    Spectral field mapping in plasmonic nanostructures with nanometer resolution
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Krehl, J.; Guzzinati, G.; Schultz, J.; Potapov, P.; Pohl, D.; Martin, J.; Verbeeck, J.; Fery, A.; Büchner, B.; Lubk, A.
    Plasmonic nanostructures and -devices are rapidly transforming light manipulation technology by allowing to modify and enhance optical fields on sub-wavelength scales. Advances in this field rely heavily on the development of new characterization methods for the fundamental nanoscale interactions. However, the direct and quantitative mapping of transient electric and magnetic fields characterizing the plasmonic coupling has been proven elusive to date. Here we demonstrate how to directly measure the inelastic momentum transfer of surface plasmon modes via the energy-loss filtered deflection of a focused electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. By scanning the beam over the sample we obtain a spatially and spectrally resolved deflection map and we further show how this deflection is related quantitatively to the spectral component of the induced electric and magnetic fields pertaining to the mode. In some regards this technique is an extension to the established differential phase contrast into the dynamic regime. © 2018, The Author(s).
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Understanding the origin of Paris Agreement emission uncertainties
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Rogelj, J.; Fricko, O.; Meinshausen, M.; Krey, V.; Zilliacus, J.J.J.; Riahi, K.
    The UN Paris Agreement puts in place a legally binding mechanism to increase mitigation action over time. Countries put forward pledges called nationally determined contributions (NDC) whose impact is assessed in global stocktaking exercises. Subsequently, actions can then be strengthened in light of the Paris climate objective: Limiting global mean temperature increase to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it further to 1.5 °C. However, pledged actions are currently described ambiguously and this complicates the global stocktaking exercise. Here, we systematically explore possible interpretations of NDC assumptions, and show that this results in estimated emissions for 2030 ranging from 47 to 63 GtCO2e yr-1. We show that this uncertainty has critical implications for the feasibility and cost to limit warming well below 2 °C and further to 1.5 °C. Countries are currently working towards clarifying the modalities of future NDCs. We identify salient avenues to reduce the overall uncertainty by about 10 percentage points through simple, technical clarifications regarding energy accounting rules. Remaining uncertainties depend to a large extent on politically valid choices about how NDCs are expressed, and therefore raise the importance of a thorough and robust process that keeps track of where emissions are heading over time.
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    Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels
    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.