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    A Mechanistic Perspective on Plastically Flexible Coordination Polymers
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Bhattacharya, Biswajit; Michalchuk, Adam A.L.; Silbernagl, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Max; Schmid, Thomas; Feiler, Torvid; Reimann, Klaus; Ghalgaoui, Ahmed; Sturm, Heinz; Paulus, Beate; Emmerling, Franziska
    Mechanical flexibility in single crystals of covalently bound materials is a fascinating and poorly understood phenomenon. We present here the first example of a plastically flexible one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer. The compound [Zn(μ-Cl)2(3,5-dichloropyridine)2]n is flexible over two crystallographic faces. Remarkably, the single crystal remains intact when bent to 180°. A combination of microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic studies have been used to probe the structural response of the crystal lattice to mechanical bending. Deformation of the covalent polymer chains does not appear to be responsible for the observed macroscopic bending. Instead, our results suggest that mechanical bending occurs by displacement of the coordination polymer chains. Based on experimental and theoretical evidence, we propose a new model for mechanical flexibility in 1D coordination polymers. Moreover, our calculations propose a cause of the different mechanical properties of this compound and a structurally similar elastic material. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
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    Membrane Functionalization in Pilot Scale: Roll‐to‐Roll Electron Beam System with Inline Contact Angle Determination
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Schulze, Agnes; Drößler, Lutz; Weiß, Steffen; Went, Marco; Abdul Latif, Amira; Breite, Daniel; Fischer, Kristina
    To increase the permeation performance and antifouling properties of polymer membranes, a one-step reaction using electron irradiation was developed. This process combines the surface activation of the membrane polymer and the simultaneous permanent immobilization of hydrophilic molecules. This technology can be applied to various polymers, flat sheet/hollow fiber membranes and all pore ranges. The roll-to-roll system developed for this enables all process steps including inline analysis for quality control of the membrane surface in a continuously operated system. © 2021 The Authors. Chemie Ingenieur Technik published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Nonspherical Nanoparticle Shape Stability Is Affected by Complex Manufacturing Aspects: Its Implications for Drug Delivery and Targeting
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Haryadi, Bernard Manuel; Hafner, Daniel; Amin, Ihsan; Schubel, Rene; Jordan, Rainer; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia
    The shape of nanoparticles is known recently as an important design parameter influencing considerably the fate of nanoparticles with and in biological systems. Several manufacturing techniques to generate nonspherical nanoparticles as well as studies on in vitro and in vivo effects thereof have been described. However, nonspherical nanoparticle shape stability in physiological-related conditions and the impact of formulation parameters on nonspherical nanoparticle resistance still need to be investigated. To address these issues, different nanoparticle fabrication methods using biodegradable polymers are explored to produce nonspherical nanoparticles via the prevailing film-stretching method. In addition, systematic comparisons to other nanoparticle systems prepared by different manufacturing techniques and less biodegradable materials (but still commonly utilized for drug delivery and targeting) are conducted. The study evinces that the strong interplay from multiple nanoparticle properties (i.e., internal structure, Young's modulus, surface roughness, liquefaction temperature [glass transition (Tg) or melting (Tm)], porosity, and surface hydrophobicity) is present. It is not possible to predict the nonsphericity longevity by merely one or two factor(s). The most influential features in preserving the nonsphericity of nanoparticles are existence of internal structure and low surface hydrophobicity (i.e., surface-free energy (SFE) > ≈55 mN m−1, material–water interfacial tension <6 mN m−1), especially if the nanoparticles are soft (<1 GPa), rough (Rrms > 10 nm), porous (>1 m2 g−1), and in possession of low bulk liquefaction temperature (<100 °C). Interestingly, low surface hydrophobicity of nanoparticles can be obtained indirectly by the significant presence of residual stabilizers. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that nonsphericity of particle systems is highly dependent on surface chemistry but cannot be appraised separately from other factors. These results and reviews allot valuable guidelines for the design and manufacturing of nonspherical nanoparticles having adequate shape stability, thereby appropriate with their usage purposes. Furthermore, they can assist in understanding and explaining the possible mechanisms of nonspherical nanoparticles effectivity loss and distinctive material behavior at the nanoscale. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Enlightening Materials with Photoswitches
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Eisenreich, Fabian; Hecht, Stefan
    Incorporating molecular photoswitches into various materials provides unique opportunities for controlling their properties and functions with high spatiotemporal resolution using remote optical stimuli. The great and largely still untapped potential of these photoresponsive systems has not yet been fully exploited due to the fundamental challenges in harnessing geometrical and electronic changes on the molecular level to modulate macroscopic and bulk material properties. Herein, progress made during the past decade in the field of photoswitchable materials is highlighted. After pointing to some general design principles, materials with an increasing order of the integrated photoswitchable units are discussed, spanning the range from amorphous settings over surfaces/interfaces and supramolecular ensembles, to liquid crystalline and crystalline phases. Finally, some potential future directions are pointed out in the conclusion. In view of the exciting recent achievements in the field, the future emergence and further development of light-driven and optically programmable (inter)active materials and systems are eagerly anticipated. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    The Biomedical Use of Silk: Past, Present, Future
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Holland, Chris; Numata, Keiji; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Seib, F. Philipp
    Humans have long appreciated silk for its lustrous appeal and remarkable physical properties, yet as the mysteries of silk are unraveled, it becomes clear that this outstanding biopolymer is more than a high-tech fiber. This progress report provides a critical but detailed insight into the biomedical use of silk. This journey begins with a historical perspective of silk and its uses, including the long-standing desire to reverse engineer silk. Selected silk structure–function relationships are then examined to appreciate past and current silk challenges. From this, biocompatibility and biodegradation are reviewed with a specific focus of silk performance in humans. The current clinical uses of silk (e.g., sutures, surgical meshes, and fabrics) are discussed, as well as clinical trials (e.g., wound healing, tissue engineering) and emerging biomedical applications of silk across selected formats, such as silk solution, films, scaffolds, electrospun materials, hydrogels, and particles. The journey finishes with a look at the roadmap of next-generation recombinant silks, especially the development pipeline of this new industry for clinical use. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Enzyme Activity by Design: An Artificial Rhodium Hydroformylase for Linear Aldehydes
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2017-9-13) Jarvis, Amanda G.; Obrecht, Lorenz; Deuss, Peter J.; Laan, Wouter; Gibson, Emma K.; Wells, Peter P.; Kamer, Paul C. J.
    Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) are hybrid catalysts that offer a unique opportunity to combine the superior performance of natural protein structures with the unnatural reactivity of transition-metal catalytic centers. Therefore, they provide the prospect of highly selective and active catalytic chemical conversions for which natural enzymes are unavailable. Herein, we show how by rationally combining robust site-specific phosphine bioconjugation methods and a lipid-binding protein (SCP-2L), an artificial rhodium hydroformylase was developed that displays remarkable activities and selectivities for the biphasic production of long-chain linear aldehydes under benign aqueous conditions. Overall, this study demonstrates that judiciously chosen protein-binding scaffolds can be adapted to obtain metalloenzymes that provide the reactivity of the introduced metal center combined with specifically intended product selectivity.
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    A Holistic Solution to Icing by Acoustic Waves: De-Icing, Active Anti-Icing, Sensing with Piezoelectric Crystals, and Synergy with Thin Film Passive Anti-Icing Solutions
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) del Moral, Jaime; Montes, Laura; Rico‐Gavira, Victor Joaquin; López‐Santos, Carmen; Jacob, Stefan; Oliva‐Ramirez, Manuel; Gil‐Rostra, Jorge; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Pandey, Shilpi; Gonzalez del Val, Miguel; Mora, Julio; García‐Gallego, Paloma; Ibáñez‐Ibáñez, Pablo Francisco; Rodríguez‐Valverde, Miguel Angel; Winkler, Andreas; Borrás, Ana; González‐Elipe, Agustin Rodriguez
    Icing has become a hot topic both in academia and in the industry given its implications in transport, wind turbines, photovoltaics, and telecommunications. Recently proposed de-icing solutions involving the propagation of acoustic waves (AWs) at suitable substrates may open the path for a sustainable alternative to standard de-icing or anti-icing procedures. Herein, the fundamental interactions are unraveled that contribute to the de-icing and/or hinder the icing on AW-activated substrates. The response toward icing of a reliable model system consisting of a piezoelectric plate activated by extended electrodes is characterized at a laboratory scale and in an icing wind tunnel under realistic conditions. Experiments show that surface modification with anti-icing functionalities provides a synergistic response when activated with AWs. A thoughtful analysis of the resonance frequency dependence on experimental variables such as temperature, ice formation, or wind velocity demonstrates the application of AW devices for real-time monitoring of icing processes.
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    Molecularly Engineered Black Phosphorus Heterostructures with Improved Ambient Stability and Enhanced Charge Carrier Mobility
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Shi, Huanhuan; Fu, Shuai; Liu, Yannan; Neumann, Christof; Wang, Mingchao; Dong, Haiyun; Kot, Piotr; Bonn, Mischa; Wang, Hai I.; Turchanin, Andrey; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Shaygan Nia, Ali; Yang, Sheng; Feng, Xinliang
    Overcoming the intrinsic instability and preserving unique electronic properties are key challenges for the practical applications of black phosphorus (BP) under ambient conditions. Here, it is demonstrated that molecular heterostructures of BP and hexaazatriphenylene derivatives (BP/HATs) enable improved environmental stability and charge transport properties. The strong interfacial coupling and charge transfer between the HATs and the BP lattice decrease the surface electron density and protect BP sheets from oxidation, resulting in an excellent ambient lifetime of up to 21 d. Importantly, HATs increase the charge scattering time of BP, contributing to an improved carrier mobility of 97 cm2 V-1 s-1 , almost three times of the pristine BP films, based on noninvasive THz spectroscopic studies. The film mobility is an order of magnitude larger than previously reported values in exfoliated 2D materials. The strategy opens up new avenues for versatile applications of BP sheets and provides an effective method for tuning the physicochemical properties of other air-sensitive 2D semiconductors.
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    Substrate-Independent Magnetic Bistability in Monolayers of the Single-Molecule Magnet Dy2ScN@C80 on Metals and Insulators
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Krylov, Denis S.; Schimmel, Sebastian; Dubrovin, Vasilii; Liu, Fupin; Nguyen, T.T. Nhung; Spree, Lukas; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Velkos, Georgios; Bulbucan, Claudiu; Westerström, Rasmus; Studniarek, Michał; Dreiser, Jan; Hess, Christian; Büchner, Bernd; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Popov, Alexey A.
    Magnetic hysteresis is demonstrated for monolayers of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) Dy2ScN@C80 deposited on Au(111), Ag(100), and MgO|Ag(100) surfaces by vacuum sublimation. The topography and electronic structure of Dy2ScN@C80 adsorbed on Au(111) were studied by STM. X-ray magnetic CD studies show that the Dy2ScN@C80 monolayers exhibit similarly broad magnetic hysteresis independent on the substrate used, but the orientation of the Dy2ScN cluster depends strongly on the surface. DFT calculations show that the extent of the electronic interaction of the fullerene molecules with the surface is increasing dramatically from MgO to Au(111) and Ag(100). However, the charge redistribution at the fullerene-surface interface is fully absorbed by the carbon cage, leaving the state of the endohedral cluster intact. This Faraday cage effect of the fullerene preserves the magnetic bistability of fullerene-SMMs on conducting substrates and facilitates their application in molecular spintronics. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
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    On the Promotion of Catalytic Reactions by Surface Acoustic Waves
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) von Boehn, Bernhard; Foerster, Michael; von Boehn, Moritz; Prat, Jordi; Macià, Ferran; Casals, Blai; Khaliq, Muhammad Waqas; Hernández-Mínguez, Alberto; Aballe, Lucia; Imbihl, Ronald
    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) allow to manipulate surfaces with potential applications in catalysis, sensor and nanotechnology. SAWs were shown to cause a strong increase in catalytic activity and selectivity in many oxidation and decomposition reactions on metallic and oxidic catalysts. However, the promotion mechanism has not been unambiguously identified. Using stroboscopic X-ray photoelectron spectro-microscopy, we were able to evidence a sub-nanosecond work function change during propagation of 500 MHz SAWs on a 9 nm thick platinum film. We quantify the work function change to 455 μeV. Such a small variation rules out that electronic effects due to elastic deformation (strain) play a major role in the SAW-induced promotion of catalysis. In a second set of experiments, SAW-induced intermixing of a five monolayers thick Rh film on top of polycrystalline platinum was demonstrated to be due to enhanced thermal diffusion caused by an increase of the surface temperature by about 75 K when SAWs were excited. Reversible surface structural changes are suggested to be a major cause for catalytic promotion. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH