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Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
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    Combining super-resolution microcopy with neuronal network recording using magnesium fluoride thin films as cover layer for multi-electrode array technology
    (Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Schmidl, Lars; Schmidl, Gabriele; Gawlik, Annett; Dellith, Jan; Hübner, Uwe; Tympel, Volker; Schmidl, Frank; Plentz, Jonathan; Geis, Christian; Haselmann, Holger
    We present an approach for fabrication of reproducible, chemically and mechanically robust functionalized layers based on MgF2 thin films on thin glass substrates. These show great advantages for use in super-resolution microscopy as well as for multi-electrode-array fabrication and are especially suited for combination of these techniques. The transparency of the coated substrates with the low refractive index material is adjustable by the layer thickness and can be increased above 92%. Due to the hydrophobic and lipophilic properties of the thin crystalline MgF2 layers, the temporal stable adhesion needed for fixation of thin tissue, e.g. cryogenic brain slices is given. This has been tested using localization-based super-resolution microscopy with currently highest spatial resolution in light microscopy. We demonstrated that direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy revealed in reliable imaging of structures of central synapses by use of double immunostaining of post- (homer1 and GluA2) and presynaptic (bassoon) marker structure in a 10 µm brain slice without additional fixing of the slices. Due to the proven additional electrical insulating effect of MgF2 layers, surfaces of multi-electrode-arrays were coated with this material and tested by voltage-current-measurements. MgF2 coated multi-electrode-arrays can be used as a functionalized microscope cover slip for combination with live-cell super-resolution microscopy.
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    New perspectives for viability studies with high-content analysis Raman spectroscopy (HCA-RS)
    (Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Mondol, Abdullah S.; Töpfer, Natalie; Rüger, Jan; Neugebauer, Ute; Popp, Jürgen; Schie, Iwan W.
    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in clinical and molecular biological studies, providing high chemical specificity without the necessity of labels and with little-to-no sample preparation. However, currently performed Raman-based studies of eukaryotic cells are still very laborious and time-consuming, resulting in a low number of sampled cells and questionable statistical validations. Furthermore, the approach requires a trained specialist to perform and analyze the experiments, rendering the method less attractive for most laboratories. In this work, we present a new high-content analysis Raman spectroscopy (HCA-RS) platform that overcomes the current challenges of conventional Raman spectroscopy implementations. HCA-RS allows sampling of a large number of cells under different physiological conditions without any user interaction. The performance of the approach is successfully demonstrated by the development of a Raman-based cell viability assay, i.e., the effect of doxorubicin concentration on monocytic THP-1 cells. A statistical model, principal component analysis combined with support vector machine (PCA-SVM), was found to successfully predict the percentage of viable cells in a mixed population and is in good agreement to results obtained by a standard cell viability assay. This study demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a standard high-throughput tool for clinical and biological applications.
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    Surface deep profile synchrotron studies of mechanically modified top-down silicon nanowires array using ultrasoft X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy
    (Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Turishchev, S.Yu.; Parinova, V.E.; Pisliaruka, Aleksandra; Koyuda, D.A.; Yermukhamed, Dana; Ming, Tingsen; Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Makarova, Anna; Sivakov, Vladimir
    Atomic, electronic structure and composition of top-down metal-assisted wet-chemically etched silicon nanowires were studied by synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption near edge structure technique. Local surrounding of the silicon and oxygen atoms in silicon nanowires array was studied on as-prepared nanostructured surfaces (atop part of nanowires) and their bulk part after, first time applied, in-situ mechanical removal atop part of the formed silicon nanowires. Silicon suboxides together with disturbed silicon dioxide were found in the composition of the formed arrays that affects the electronic structure of silicon nanowires. The results obtained by us convincingly testify to the homogeneity of the phase composition of the side walls of silicon nanowires and the electronic structure in the entire length of the nanowire. The controlled formation of the silicon nanowires array may lead to smart engineering of its atomic and electronic structure that influences the exploiting strategy of metal-assisted wet-chemically etched silicon nanowires as universal matrices for different applications.
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    Studying hydrogen bonding and dynamics of the acetylate groups of the Special Pair of Rhodobacter sphaeroides WT
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Gräsing, Daniel; Dziubińska-Kühn, Katarzyna M.; Zahn, Stefan; Alia, A.; Matysik, Jörg
    Although the cofactors in the bacterial reaction centre of Rhodobacter sphaeroides wild type (WT) are arranged almost symmetrically in two branches, the light-induced electron transfer occurs selectively in one branch. As origin of this functional symmetry break, a hydrogen bond between the acetyl group of PL in the primary donor and His-L168 has been discussed. In this study, we investigate the existence and rigidity of this hydrogen bond with solid-state photo-CIDNP MAS NMR methods offering information on the local electronic structure due to highly sensitive and selective NMR experiments. On the time scale of the experiment, the hydrogen bond between PL and His-L168 appears to be stable and not to be affected by illumination confirming a structural asymmetry within the Special Pair.
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    Physical plasma-triggered ROS induces tumor cell death upon cleavage of HSP90 chaperone
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Bekeschus, Sander; Lippert, Maxi; Diepold, Kristina; Chiosis, Gabriela; Seufferlein, Thomas; Azoitei, Ninel
    HSP90 is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone implicated in the correct folding and maturation of a plethora of proteins including protein kinases and transcription factors. While disruption of chaperone activity was associated with augmented cancer cell death and decreased tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, the regulation of HSP90 is not clearly understood. Here we report that treatment of cancer cells with cold physical plasma, an emerging and less aggressive tumor therapy, resulted in ROS generation which subsequently triggered the cleavage of HSP90. Notably, cleavage of HSP90 was followed by the degradation of PKD2, a crucial regulator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Pre-sensitization of cancer cells with subliminal doses of PU-H71, an HSP90 inhibitor currently under clinical evaluation, followed by treatment with cold-plasma, synergistically and negatively impacted on the viability of cancer cells. Taken together, cold-plasma can be used in conjunction with pharmacologic treatment in order to target the expression and activity of HSP90 and the downstream client proteins implicated in various cancer cell capabilities.
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    Energetic electron assisted synthesis of highly tunable temperature-responsive collagen/elastin gels for cyclic actuation: macroscopic switching and molecular origins
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Wilharm, Nils; Fischer, Tony; Ott, Florian; Konieczny, Robert; Zink, Mareike; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Mayr, Stefan G.
    Thermoresponsive bio-only gels that yield sufficiently large strokes reversibly and without large hysteresis at a well-defined temperature in the physiological range, promise to be of value in biomedical application. Within the present work we demonstrate that electron beam modification of a blend of natural collagen and elastin gels is a route to achieve this goal, viz. to synthesize a bioresorbable gel with largely reversible volume contractions as large as 90% upon traversing a transition temperature that can be preadjusted between 36 °C and 43 °C by the applied electron dose. Employing circular dichroism and temperature depending confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements, we furthermore unravel the mechanisms underlying this macroscopic behavior on a molecular and network level, respectively and suggest a stringent picture to account for the experimental observations. © 2019, The Author(s).
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    Comparing socioeconomic inequalities between early neonatal mortality and facility delivery: Cross-sectional data from 72 low- and middle-income countries
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Lohela, Terhi J.; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Pekkanen, Juha; Gabrysch, Sabine
    Facility delivery should reduce early neonatal mortality. We used the Slope Index of Inequality and logistic regression to quantify absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in early neonatal mortality (0 to 6 days) and facility delivery among 679,818 live births from 72 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys. The inequalities in early neonatal mortality were compared with inequalities in postneonatal infant mortality (28 days to 1 year), which is not related to childbirth. Newborns of the richest mothers had a small survival advantage over the poorest in unadjusted analyses (−2.9 deaths/1,000; OR 0.86) and the most educated had a small survival advantage over the least educated (−3.9 deaths/1,000; OR 0.77), while inequalities in postneonatal infant mortality were more than double that in absolute terms. The proportion of births in health facilities was an absolute 43% higher among the richest and 37% higher among the most educated compared to the poorest and least educated mothers. A higher proportion of facility delivery in the sampling cluster (e.g. village) was only associated with a small  decrease in early neonatal mortality. In conclusion, while socioeconomically advantaged mothers had much higher use of a health facility at birth, this did not appear to convey a comparable survival advantage.
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    Unusual terahertz waveforms from a resonant medium controlled by diffractive optical elements
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Pakhomov, A.V.; Arkhipov, R.M.; Arkhipov, M.V.; Demircan, A.; Morgner, U.; Rosanov, N.N.; Babushkin, I.
    Up to now, full tunability of waveforms was possible only in electronics, up to radio-frequencies. Here we propose a new concept of producing few-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses with widely tunable waveforms. It is based on control of the phase delay between different parts of the THz wavefront using linear diffractive optical elements. Suitable subcycle THz wavefronts can be generated via coherent excitation of nonlinear low-frequency oscillators by few-cycle optical pulses. Using this approach it is possible to shape the electric field rather than the slow pulse envelope, obtaining, for instance, rectangular or triangular waveforms in the THz range. The method is upscalable to the optical range if the attosecond pump pulses are used.
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    Fabrication of multifunctional titanium surfaces by producing hierarchical surface patterns using laser based ablation methods
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Zwahr, Christoph; Helbig, Ralf; Werner, Carsten; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián
    Textured implant surfaces with micrometer and sub-micrometer features can improve contact properties like cell adhesion and bacteria repellency. A critical point of these surfaces is their mechanical stability during implantation. Therefore, strategies capable to provide both biocompatibility for an improved implant healing and resistance to wear for protecting the functional surface are required. In this work, laser-based fabrication methods have been used to produce hierarchical patterns on titanium surfaces. Using Direct Laser Writing with a nanosecond pulsed laser, crater-like structures with a separation distance of 50 µm are produced on unpolished titanium surfaces. Directly on this texture, a hole-like pattern with 5 µm spatial period is generated using Direct Laser Interference Patterning with picosecond pulses. While the smaller features should reduce the bacterial adhesion, the larger geometry was designed to protect the smaller features from wear. On the multifunctional surface, the adherence of E. Coli bacteria is reduced by 30% compared to the untreated reference. In addition, wear test performed on the multiple-scale patterns demonstrated the possibility to protect the smaller features by the larger craters. Also, the influence of the laser treatment on the growth of a titanium oxide layer was evaluated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis. © 2019, The Author(s).
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    Role of hole confinement in the recombination properties of InGaN quantum structures
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Anikeeva, M.; Albrecht, M.; Mahler, F.; Tomm, J. W.; Lymperakis, L.; Chèze, C.; Calarco, R.; Neugebauer, J.; Schulz, T.
    We study the isolated contribution of hole localization for well-known charge carrier recombination properties observed in conventional, polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This involves the interplay of charge carrier localization and non-radiative transitions, a non-exponential decay of the emission and a specific temperature dependence of the emission, denoted as “s-shape”. We investigate two dimensional In0.25Ga0.75N QWs of single monolayer (ML) thickness, stacked in a superlattice with GaN barriers of 6, 12, 25 and 50 MLs. Our results are based on scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (STEM and HR-TEM), continuous-wave (CW) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We show that the recombination processes in our structures are not affected by polarization fields and electron localization. Nevertheless, we observe all the aforementioned recombination properties typically found in standard polar InGaN quantum wells. Via decreasing the GaN barrier width to 6 MLs and below, the localization of holes in our QWs is strongly reduced. This enhances the influence of non-radiative recombination, resulting in a decreased lifetime of the emission, a weaker spectral dependence of the decay time and a reduced s-shape of the emission peak. These findings suggest that single exponential decay observed in non-polar QWs might be related to an increasing influence of non-radiative transitions.