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    DIVA: An iterative method for building modular integrated models
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2005) Hinkel, J.
    Integrated modelling of global environmental change impacts faces the challenge that knowledge from the domains of Natural and Social Science must be integrated. This is complicated by often incompatible terminology and the fact that the interactions between subsystems are usually not fully understood at the start of the project. While a modular modelling approach is necessary to address these challenges, it is not sufficient. The remaining question is how the modelled system shall be cut down into modules. While no generic answer can be given to this question, communication tools can be provided to support the process of modularisation and integration. Along those lines of thought a method for building modular integrated models was developed within the EU project DINAS-COAST and applied to construct a first model, which assesses the vulnerability of the world’s coasts to climate change and sea-level-rise. The method focuses on the development of a common language and offers domain experts an intuitive interface to code their knowledge in form of modules. However, instead of rigorously defining interfaces between the subsystems at the project’s beginning, an iterative model development process is defined and tools to facilitate communication and collaboration are provided. This flexible approach has the advantage that increased understanding about subsystem interactions, gained during the project’s lifetime, can immediately be reflected in the model.
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    Stern's Review and Adam's fallacy
    (Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer, 2008) Jaeger, C.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Brovkin, V.
    The Stern Review has played an enormous role in making the world of business aware of the challenge of long-term climate change. In order to make real progress on the basis of this awareness, it is important to pay attention to the difference between human suffering and losses of gross domestic product (GDP). The Review has compared climate change to experiences of suffering like World War I. That war, however, hardly affected global GDP. The long-term damages to be expected from business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions include loss of the coastal cities of the world over the next millennia. This would be an act of unprecedented barbarism, regardless of whether it would slow down economic growth or perhaps even accelerate it. Business leaders worried about climate change need to pay attention to the tensions between ethical and economic concerns. Otherwise, a credibility crisis threatens global climate policy. An important step to establish the credibility needed for effective climate policy will be to gradually move towards a regime where emission permits are auctioned, not handed out as hidden subsidies. The revenues generated by permit auctions should be used to establish a global system of regional climate funds. © 2008 The Author(s).
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    Low-stabilisation scenarios and technologies for carbon capture and sequestration
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2009) Bauer, N.; Edenhofer, O.; Leimbach, M.
    Endogenous technology scenarios for meeting low stabilization CO2 targets are derived in this study and assessed regarding emission reductions and mitigation costs. The aim is to indentify the most important technology options for achieving low stabilization targets. The significance of an option is indicated by its achieved emission reduction and the mitigation cost increase, if this option were not available. Quantitative results are computed using a global multi-regional hard-linked hybrid model that integrates the economy, the energy sector and the climate system. The model endogenously determines the optimal deployment of technologies subject to a constraint on climate change. The alternative options in the energy sector comprise the most important mitigation technologies: renewables, biomass, nuclear, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and biomass with CCS as well as energy efficiency improvements. The results indicate that the availability of CCS technologies and espec. biomass with CCS is highly desirable for achieving low stabilization goals at low costs. The option of nuclear energy is different: although it could play an important role in the primary energy mix, mitigation costs would only mildly increase, if it could not be expanded. Therefore, in order to promote prudent climate change mitigation goals, support of CCS technologies reduces the costs and-thus-is desirable from a social point of view. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Geoengineering climate by stratospheric sulfur injections: Earth system vulnerability to technological failure
    (Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer, 2009) Brovkin, V.; Petoukhov, V.; Claussen, M.; Bauer, E.; Archer, D.; Jaeger, C.
    We use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity to investigate scenarios of stratospheric sulfur injections as a measure to compensate for CO2-induced global warming. The baseline scenario includes the burning of 5,000 GtC of fossil fuels. A full compensation of CO2-induced warming requires a load of about 13 MtS in the stratosphere at the peak of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Keeping global warming below 2°C reduces this load to 9 MtS. Compensation of CO 2 forcing by stratospheric aerosols leads to a global reduction in precipitation, warmer winters in the high northern latitudes and cooler summers over northern hemisphere landmasses. The average surface ocean pH decreases by 0.7, reducing the calcifying ability of marine organisms. Because of the millennial persistence of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere, high levels of stratospheric aerosol loading would have to continue for thousands of years until CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. A termination of stratospheric aerosol loading results in abrupt global warming of up to 5°C within several decades, a vulnerability of the Earth system to technological failure. © 2008 The Author(s).
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    Large-scale hydrological modelling and the Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive of the European Union - 10th Workshop on Large-Scale Hydrological Modelling
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2007) Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Hattermann, F.; Mohaupt, V.; Merz, B.; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Bronstert, A.
    In December 2000, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union (EU) was enforced (EC, 2000) to provide a new legislative basis for water management in Europe. The main goal of the WFD is the implementation of river basin water management plans in which comprehensive studies of the current status of the surface and ground water bodies must be reported and management programs must be enforced with cost-effective measures with which a good ecological condition of the water bodies can be attained and sustained.