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- ItemMeasuring and monitoring urban impacts on climate change from space(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Milesi, Cristina; Churkina, GalinaAs urban areas continue to expand and play a critical role as both contributors to climate change and hotspots of vulnerability to its effects, cities have become battlegrounds for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Large amounts of earth observations from space have been collected over the last five decades and while most of the measurements have not been designed specifically for monitoring urban areas, an increasing number of these observations is being used for understanding the growth rates of cities and their environmental impacts. Here we reviewed the existing tools available from satellite remote sensing to study urban contribution to climate change, which could be used for monitoring the progress of climate change mitigation strategies at the city level. We described earth observations that are suitable for measuring and monitoring urban population, extent, and structure; urban emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; urban energy consumption; and extent, intensity, and effects on surrounding regions, including nearby water bodies, of urban heat islands. We compared the observations available and obtainable from space with the measurements desirable for monitoring. Despite considerable progress in monitoring urban extent, structure, heat island intensity, and air pollution from space, many limitations and uncertainties still need to be resolved. We emphasize that some important variables, such as population density and urban energy consumption, cannot be suitably measured from space with available observations.
- ItemSystem complexity and policy integration challenges: The Brazilian Energy- Water-Food Nexus(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Mercure, J.-F.; Paim, M.A.; Bocquillon, P.; Lindner, S.; Salas, P.; Martinelli, P.; Berchin, I.I.; de Andrade Guerra, J.B.S.O; Derani, C.; de Albuquerque Junior, C.L.; Ribeiro, J.M.P.; Knobloch, F.; Pollitt, H.; Edwards, N.R.; Holden, P.B.; Foley, A.; Schaphoff, S.; Faraco, R.A.; Vinuales, J.E.The Energy-Water-Food Nexus is one of the most complex sustainability challenges faced by the world. This is particularly true in Brazil, where insufficiently understood interactions within the Nexus are contributing to large-scale deforestation and land-use change, water and energy scarcity, and increased vulnerability to climate change. The reason is a combination of global environmental change and global economic change, putting unprecedented pressures on the Brazilian environment and ecosystems. In this paper, we identify and discuss the main Nexus challenges faced by Brazil across sectors (e.g. energy, agriculture, water) and scales (e.g. federal, state, municipal). We use four case studies to explore all nodes of the Nexus. For each, we analyse data from economic and biophysical modelling sources in combination with an overview of the legislative and policy landscape, in order to identify governance shortcomings in the context of growing challenges. We analyse the complex interdependence of developments at the global and local (Brazilian) levels, highlighting the impact of global environmental and economic change on Brazil and, conversely, that of developments in Brazil for other countries and the world. We conclude that there is a need to adjust the scientific approach to these challenges as an enabling condition for stronger science-policy bridges for sustainability policy-making. © 2019 The Author(s)
- ItemBio-IGCC with CCS as a long-term mitigation option in a coupled energy-system and land-use model(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2011) Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Bodirsky, B.; Dietrich, J.P.; Popp, A.This study analyses the impact of techno-economic performance of the BIGCC process and the effect of different biomass feedstocks on the technology's long term deployment in climate change mitigation scenarios. As the BIGCC technology demands high amounts of biomass raw material it also affects the land-use sector and is dependent on conditions and constraints on the land-use side. To represent the interaction of biomass demand and supply side the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND is linked to the global land-use model MAgPIE. The link integrates biomass demand and price as well as emission prices and land-use emissions. Results indicate that BIGCC with CCS could serve as an important mitigation option and that it could even be the main bioenergy conversion technology sharing 33% of overall mitigation in 2100. The contribution of BIGCC technology to long-term climate change mitigation is much higher if grass is used as fuel instead of wood, provided that the grass-based process is highly efficient. The capture rate has to significantly exceed 60 % otherwise the technology is not applied. The overall primary energy consumption of biomass reacts much more sensitive to price changes of the biomass than to technoeconomic performance of the BIGCC process. As biomass is mainly used with CCS technologies high amounts of carbon are captured ranging from 130 GtC to 240 GtC (cumulated from 2005-2100) in different scenarios.
- ItemTackling long-term climate change together: The case of flexible CCS and fluctuating renewable energy(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2011) Ludig, S.; Haller, M.; Bauer, N.The present study aims at shedding light into the interaction of fluctuating renewables and the operational flexibility of post-combustion capture plants in the framework of a long-term model. We developed a model of the electricity sector taking into account both long-term investment time scales to represent plant fleet development under economic and climate constraints as well as short time scales to consider fluctuations of demand and renewable energy sources. The LIMES model allows us to determine the respective roles of renewables and CCS in climate change mitigation efforts within the electricity sector. Furthermore, we assess the influence of natural gas prices on fuel choice and investigate the shares of competing CCS approaches in the technology mix. We find that the optimal technology mix includes large shares of renewables and simultaneously different competing CCS technologies, depending on emission constraints and fuel prices.