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    Bio-IGCC with CCS as a long-term mitigation option in a coupled energy-system and land-use model
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2011) Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Bodirsky, B.; Dietrich, J.P.; Popp, A.
    This study analyses the impact of techno-economic performance of the BIGCC process and the effect of different biomass feedstocks on the technology's long term deployment in climate change mitigation scenarios. As the BIGCC technology demands high amounts of biomass raw material it also affects the land-use sector and is dependent on conditions and constraints on the land-use side. To represent the interaction of biomass demand and supply side the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND is linked to the global land-use model MAgPIE. The link integrates biomass demand and price as well as emission prices and land-use emissions. Results indicate that BIGCC with CCS could serve as an important mitigation option and that it could even be the main bioenergy conversion technology sharing 33% of overall mitigation in 2100. The contribution of BIGCC technology to long-term climate change mitigation is much higher if grass is used as fuel instead of wood, provided that the grass-based process is highly efficient. The capture rate has to significantly exceed 60 % otherwise the technology is not applied. The overall primary energy consumption of biomass reacts much more sensitive to price changes of the biomass than to technoeconomic performance of the BIGCC process. As biomass is mainly used with CCS technologies high amounts of carbon are captured ranging from 130 GtC to 240 GtC (cumulated from 2005-2100) in different scenarios.
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    Tackling long-term climate change together: The case of flexible CCS and fluctuating renewable energy
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2011) Ludig, S.; Haller, M.; Bauer, N.
    The present study aims at shedding light into the interaction of fluctuating renewables and the operational flexibility of post-combustion capture plants in the framework of a long-term model. We developed a model of the electricity sector taking into account both long-term investment time scales to represent plant fleet development under economic and climate constraints as well as short time scales to consider fluctuations of demand and renewable energy sources. The LIMES model allows us to determine the respective roles of renewables and CCS in climate change mitigation efforts within the electricity sector. Furthermore, we assess the influence of natural gas prices on fuel choice and investigate the shares of competing CCS approaches in the technology mix. We find that the optimal technology mix includes large shares of renewables and simultaneously different competing CCS technologies, depending on emission constraints and fuel prices.