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    Effects of Drought and Heat on Photosynthetic Performance, Water Use and Yield of Two Selected Fiber Hemp Cultivars at a Poor-Soil Site in Brandenburg (Germany)
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Herppich, Werner B.; Gusovius, Hans-Jörg; Flemming, Inken; Drastig, Katrin
    Hemp currently regains certain importance as fiber, oil and medical crop not least because of its modest requirements of biocides, fertilizer and water. During recent years, crops were exposed to a combination of drought and heat, even in northern Central-Europe. Dynamic responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to these stresses and their persistent effects had been studied, if at all, in controlled environment experiments. Comprehensive field studies on diurnal and long-term net photosynthesis and gas exchange, and yield properties of hemp during a drought prone, high-temperature season in northern Central-Europe are obviously missing. Thus, in whole season field trails, the essential actual physiological (rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiencies, ambient and internal CO2 concentrations) and the yield performance of modern high-yielding multi-purpose hemp cultivars, ‘Ivory’ and ‘Santhica 27’, were evaluated under extreme environmental conditions and highly limited soil water supply. This provides comprehensive information on the usability of these cultivars under potential future harsh production conditions. Plants of both cultivars differentially cope with the prevailing climatic and soil water conditions. While ‘Ivory’ plants developed high rates of CO2 gain and established large leaf area per plant in the mid-season, those of ‘Santhica 27’ utilized lower CO2 uptake rates at lower leaf area per plant most time. This and the higher germination success of ‘Santhica 27’ resulted in nearly twice the yield compared to ‘Ivory’. Although stomatal control of CO2 gain was pronounced in both cultivars, higher stomatal limitations in ‘Ivory’ plants resulted in higher overall intrinsic water use efficiency. Cultivation of both hemp cultivars with only basic irrigation during seed germination was successful and without large effects on yield and quality. This was valid even under extremely hot and dry climatic conditions in northern Central Europe.
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    Awassi sheep keeping in the Arabic steppe in relation to nitrous oxide emission from soil
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2013) Hijazi, Omar; Berg, Werner; Moussa, Samouil; Ammon, Christian; von Bobrutzki, Kristina; Brunsch, Reiner
    Sheep husbandry is the main source of income for farmers in arid zones. Increasing sheep production on steppes may increase the greenhouse gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the steppes for Awassi sheep keeping and feed cropping in arid zones such as Syria. The methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used to estimate N2O emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms in Syria to gather data for analysis. Precipitation and crop yield data from 2001 to 2009 were also used for calculation and modelling. Sheep-keeping systems, precipitation, year and the region have significant effects on N2O emissions (p<0.05). Emissions of N2O from lands with extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems were 0.30 ± 0.093, 0.598± 0.113 and 2.243± 0.187 kg sheep1year1, respectively. Crop production was higher in regions with high precipitation levels, which helped to reduce N2O emissions. Using more residuals of wheat, cotton and soya as feed for sheep in the keeping systems evaluated may decrease the overuse of steppe regions and N2O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions of N2O from sheep-keeping areas can be reduced by changing sheep-keeping systems and increasing the crop production in arid zones through artificial irrigation.
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    To what extent is climate change adaptation a novel challenge for agricultural modellers?
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Kipling, R.P.; Topp, C.F.E.; Bannink, A.; Bartley, D.J.; Blanco-Penedo, I.; Cortignani, R.; del Prado, A.; Dono, G.; Faverdin, P.; Graux, A.-I.; Hutchings, N.J.; Lauwers, L.; Özkan Gülzari, Ş.; Reidsma, P.; Rolinski, S.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Sandars, D.L.; Sándor, R.; Schönhart, M.; Seddaiu, G.; van Middelkoop, J.; Shrestha, S.; Weindl, I.; Schönhart, M.; Seddaiu, G.; van Middelkoop, J.; Shrestha, S.; Weindl, I.; Eory, V.
    Modelling is key to adapting agriculture to climate change (CC), facilitating evaluation of the impacts and efficacy of adaptation measures, and the design of optimal strategies. Although there are many challenges to modelling agricultural CC adaptation, it is unclear whether these are novel or, whether adaptation merely adds new motivations to old challenges. Here, qualitative analysis of modellers’ views revealed three categories of challenge: Content, Use, and Capacity. Triangulation of findings with reviews of agricultural modelling and Climate Change Risk Assessment was then used to highlight challenges specific to modelling adaptation. These were refined through literature review, focussing attention on how the progressive nature of CC affects the role and impact of modelling. Specific challenges identified were: Scope of adaptations modelled, Information on future adaptation, Collaboration to tackle novel challenges, Optimisation under progressive change with thresholds, and Responsibility given the sensitivity of future outcomes to initial choices under progressive change. © 2019 The Authors