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    The vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of Haifa
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Heese, Birgit; Floutsi, Athena Augusta; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Herzog, Alina; Mewes, Silke; Radenz, Martin; Schechner, Yoav Y.
    For the first time, vertically resolved long-term lidar measurements of the aerosol distribution were conducted in Haifa, Israel. The measurements were performed by a PollyXT multi-wavelength Raman and polarization lidar. The lidar was measuring continuously over a 2-year period from March 2017 to May 2019. The resulting data set is a series of manually evaluated lidar optical property profiles. To identify the aerosol types in the observed layers, a novel aerosol typing method that was developed at TROPOS is used. This method applies optimal estimation to a combination of lidar-derived intensive aerosol properties to determine the statistically most-likely contribution per aerosol component in terms of relative volume. A case study that shows several elevated aerosol layers illustrates this method and shows, for example, that coarse dust particles are observed up to 5ĝ€¯km height over Israel. From the whole data set, the seasonal distribution of the observed aerosol components over Israel is derived. Throughout all seasons, coarse spherical particles like sea salt and hygroscopically grown continental aerosol were observed. These particles originate from continental Europe and were transported over the Mediterranean Sea. Sea-salt particles were observed frequently due to the coastal site of Haifa. The highest contributions of coarse spherical particles are present in summer, autumn, and winter. During spring, mostly coarse non-spherical particles that are attributed to desert dust were observed. This is consistent with the distinct dust season in spring in Israel. An automated time-height-resolved air mass source attribution method identifies the origin of the dust in the Sahara and the Arabian deserts. Fine-mode spherical particles contribute significantly to the observed aerosol mixture during all seasons. These particles originate mainly from the industrial region at the bay of Haifa.
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    Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Freudenthaler, Volker; Esselborn, Michael; Wiegner, Matthias; Heese, Birgit; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Knippertz, Peter; Toledano, Carlos; Gasteiger, Josef; Garhammer, Markus; Seefeldner, Meinhard
    Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio of pure dust clouds were measured during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) at Ouarzazate, Morocco (30.9◦N, –6.9◦E), close to source regions in May–June 2006, with four lidar systems at four wavelengths (355, 532, 710 and 1064 nm). The intercomparison of the lidar systems is accompanied by a discussion of the different calibration methods, including a new, advanced method, and a detailed error analysis. Over the whole SAMUM periode pure dust layers show a mean linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm of 0.31, in the range between 0.27 and 0.35, with a mean Ångström exponent (AE, 440–870 nm) of 0.18 (range 0.04–0.34) and still high mean linear particle depolarization ratio between 0.21 and 0.25 during periods with aerosol optical thickness less than 0.1, with a mean AE of 0.76 (range 0.65–1.00), which represents a negative correlation of the linear particle depolarization ratio with the AE. A slight decrease of the linear particle depolarization ratio with wavelength was found between 532 and 1064 nm from 0.31 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.04.
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    Doppler lidar studies of heat island effects on vertical mixing of aerosols during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Horn, Stefan; Seifert, Patric; Althausen, Dietrich; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Fruntke, Julia; Lieke, Kirsten; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke
    A wind Doppler lidar was deployed next to three aerosol lidars during the SAMUM–2 campaign on the main island of Cape Verde. The effects of the differential heating of the island and the surrounding ocean and the orographic impact of the capital island Santiago and the small island on its luv side, Maio, are investigated. Horizontal and vertical winds were measured in the disturbed maritime boundary layer and compared to local radiosoundings. Lidar measurements from the research aircraft Falcon and a 3-D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model were used in addition to study the heating effects on the scale of the islands. Indications are found that these effects can widely control the downward mixing from greater heights to the surface of African aerosols, mainly Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke, which were detected in a complex layering over the Cape Verde region.
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    Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Tesche, Matthias; Müller, Detlef; Gross, Silke; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Veira, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas
    Lidar measurements of mixed dust/smoke plumes over the tropical Atlantic ocean were carried out during the winter campaign of SAMUM-2 at Cape Verde. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and Ångstr¨om exponents related to pure biomass-burning aerosol from southern West Africa were extracted from these observations. Furthermore, these findings were used as input for an inversion algorithm to retrieve microphysical properties of pure smoke. Seven measurement days were found suitable for the procedure of aerosol-type separation and successive inversion of optical data that describe biomass-burning smoke. We inferred high smoke lidar ratios of 87 ± 17 sr at 355 nm and 79 ± 17 sr at 532 nm. Smoke lidar ratios and Ångstr¨om exponents are higher compared to the ones for the dust/smoke mixture. These numbers indicate higher absorption and smaller sizes for pure smoke particles compared to the dust/smoke mixture. Inversion of the smoke data set results in mean effective radii of 0.22 ± 0.08 μm with individual results varying between 0.10 and 0.36 μm. The single-scattering albedo for pure biomass-burning smoke was found to vary between 0.63 and 0.89 with a very low mean value of 0.75 ± 0.07. This is in good agreement with findings of airborne in situ measurements which showed values of 0.77 ± 0.03. Effective radii from the inversion were similar to the ones found for the fine mode of the in situ size distributions.
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    First triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dus
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Radenz, Martin; Wandinger, Ulla
    Two layers of Saharan dust observed over Leipzig, Germany, in February and March 2021 were used to provide the first-ever lidar measurements of the dust lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) and linear depolarization ratio at all three classical lidar wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064gnm). The pure-dust conditions during the first event exhibit lidar ratios of 47g±g8, 50g±g5 and 69g±g14gsr and particle linear depolarization ratios of 0.242g±g0.024, 0.299g±g0.018 and 0.206g±g0.010 at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The second, slightly polluted-dust case shows a similar spectral behavior of the lidar and depolarization ratio with values of the lidar ratio of 49g±g4, 46g±g5 and 57g±g9gsr and the depolarization ratio of 0.174g±g0.041, 0.298g±g0.016 and 0.242g±g0.007 at 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The results were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 3 (v3) inversion solutions and the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) at six and seven wavelengths. Both retrieval schemes make use of a spheroid shape model for mineral dust. The spectral slope of the lidar ratio from 532 to 1064gnm could be well reproduced by the AERONET and GRASP retrieval schemes. Higher lidar ratios in the UV were retrieved by AERONET and GRASP. The enhancement was probably caused by the influence of fine-mode pollution particles in the boundary layer which are included in the columnar photometer measurements. Significant differences between the measured and retrieved wavelength dependence of the particle linear depolarization ratio were found. The potential sources for these uncertainties are discussed.
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    Sun photometer retrievals of Saharan dust properties over Barbados during SALTRACE
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamín; Velasco-Merino, Cristian; Althausen, Dietrich; Groß, Silke; Wiegner, Matthias; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Gasteiger, Josef; Ansmann, Albert; González, Ramiro; Mateos, David; Farrel, David; Müller, Thomas; Haarig, Moritz; Cachorro, Victoria E.
    The Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) was devoted to the investigation of Saharan dust properties over the Caribbean. The campaign took place in June-July 2013. A wide set of ground-based and airborne aerosol instrumentation was deployed at the island of Barbados for a comprehensive experiment. Several sun photometers performed measurements during this campaign: two AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Cimel sun photometers and the Sun and Sky Automatic Radiometer (SSARA). The sun photometers were co-located with the ground-based multi-wavelength lidars BERTHA (Backscatter Extinction lidar Ratio Temperature Humidity profiling Apparatus) and POLIS (Portable Lidar System). Aerosol properties derived from direct sun and sky radiance observations are analyzed, and a comparison with the co-located lidar and in situ data is provided. The time series of aerosol optical depth (AOD) allows identifying successive dust events with short periods in between in which the marine background conditions were observed. The moderate aerosol optical depth in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 was found during the dust periods. The sun photometer infrared channel at the 1640nm wavelength was used in the retrieval to investigate possible improvements to aerosol size retrievals, and it was expected to have a larger sensitivity to coarse particles. The comparison between column (aerosol optical depth) and surface (dust concentration) data demonstrates the connection between the Saharan Air Layer and the boundary layer in the Caribbean region, as is shown by the synchronized detection of the successive dust events in both datasets. However the differences of size distributions derived from sun photometer data and in situ observations reveal the difficulties in carrying out a column closure study. © 2019 All rights reserved.
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    Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Müller, Thomas; Tesche, Matthias; Wiegner, Matthias
    Vertical profiles of dust key optical properties are presented from measurements during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) by Raman and depolarization lidar at two ground-based sites and by airborne high spectral resolution lidar. One of the sites, Tinfou, is located close to the border of the Sahara in Southern Morocco and was the main in situ site during SAMUM. The other site was Ouarzazate airport, the main lidar site. From the lidar measurements the spatial distribution of the dust between Tinfou and Ouarzazate was derived for 1 d. The retrieved profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients and particle depolarization ratios show comparable dust optical properties, a similar vertical structure of the dust layer, and a height of about 4 km asl at both sites. The airborne cross-section of the extinction coefficient at the two sites confirms the low variability in dust properties. Although the general picture of the dust layer was similar, the lidar measurements reveal a higher dust load closer to the dust source. Nevertheless, the observed intensive optical properties were the same. These results indicate that the lidar measurements at two sites close to the dust source are both representative for the SAMUM dust conditions.
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    The automated multiwavelength Raman polarization and water-vapor lidar PollyXT: The neXT generation
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Engelmann, Ronny; Kanitz, Thomas; Baars, Holger; Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Skupin, Annett; Wandinger, Ulla; Komppula, Mika; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Mattis, Ina; Linné, Holger; Ansmann, Albert
    The atmospheric science community demands autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. The lidar system was continuously improved with gained experience from the EARLINET community, involvement in worldwide field campaigns, and international institute collaborations within the last 10 years. Here we present recent changes of the setup of the portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT and discuss the improved capabilities of the system by means of a case study. The latest system developments include an additional near-range receiver unit for Raman measurements of the backscatter and extinction coefficient down to 120 m above ground, a water-vapor channel, and channels for simultaneous measurements of the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm. Quality improvements were achieved by systematically following the EARLINET guidelines and the international PollyNET quality assurance developments. A modified ship radar ensures measurements in agreement with air-traffic safety regulations and allows for 24∕7 monitoring of the atmospheric state with PollyXT.
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    EARLINET evaluation of the CATS Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Proestakis, Emmanouil; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Hofer, Julian; Yorks, John; Nowottnick, Edward; Makhmudov, Abduvosit; Papayannis, Alexandros; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Gialitaki, Anna; Apituley, Arnoud; Szkop, Artur; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Bortoli, Daniele; Dionisi, Davide; Althausen, Dietrich; Mamali, Dimitra; Balis, Dimitris; Nicolae, Doina; Tetoni, Eleni; Liberti, Gian Luigi; Baars, Holger; Mattis, Ina; Stachlewska, Iwona Sylwia; Voudouri, Kalliopi Artemis; Mona, Lucia; Mylonaki, Maria; Perrone, Maria Rita; Costa, Maria João; Sicard, Michael; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Siomos, Nikolaos; Burlizzi, Pasquale; Pauly, Rebecca; Engelmann, Ronny; Abdullaev, Sabur; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    We present the evaluation activity of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) for the quantitative assessment of the Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product derived by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS; Rodier et al., 2015). The study employs correlative CATS and EARLINET backscatter measurements within a 50km distance between the ground station and the ISS overpass and as close in time as possible, typically with the starting time or stopping time of the EARLINET performed measurement time window within 90min of the ISS overpass, for the period from February 2015 to September 2016. The results demonstrate the good agreement of the CATS Level 2 backscatter coefficient and EARLINET. Three ISS overpasses close to the EARLINET stations of Leipzig, Germany; Évora, Portugal; and Dushanbe, Tajikistan, are analyzed here to demonstrate the performance of the CATS lidar system under different conditions. The results show that under cloud-free, relative homogeneous aerosol conditions, CATS is in good agreement with EARLINET, independent of daytime and nighttime conditions. CATS low negative biases are observed, partially attributed to the deficiency of lidar systems to detect tenuous aerosol layers of backscatter signal below the minimum detection thresholds; these are biases which may lead to systematic deviations and slight underestimations of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in climate studies. In addition, CATS misclassification of aerosol layers as clouds, and vice versa, in cases of coexistent and/or adjacent aerosol and cloud features, occasionally leads to non-representative, unrealistic, and cloud-contaminated aerosol profiles. Regarding solar illumination conditions, low negative biases in CATS backscatter coefficient profiles, of the order of 6.1%, indicate the good nighttime performance of CATS. During daytime, a reduced signal-to-noise ratio by solar background illumination prevents retrievals of weakly scattering atmospheric layers that would otherwise be detectable during nighttime, leading to higher negative biases, of the order of 22.3%. © Author(s) 2019.
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    Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; MüLLER, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Mattis, Ina; Heese, Birgit; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Pisani, Gianluca; Knippertz, Peter
    Three ground-based Raman lidars and an airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) were operated duringSAMUM 2006 in southern Morocco to measure height profiles of the volume extinction coefficient, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and the depolarization ratio of dust particles in the Saharan dust layer at several wavelengths. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations and radiosoundings of meteorological parameters complemented the ground-based activities at the SAMUM station of Ouarzazate. Four case studies are presented. Two case studies deal with the comparison of observations of the three ground-based lidars during a heavy dust outbreak and of the ground-based lidars with the airborne lidar. Two further cases show profile observations during satellite overpasses on 19 May and 4 June 2006. The height resolved statistical analysis reveals that the dust layer top typically reaches 4–6 km height above sea level (a.s.l.), sometimes even 7 km a.s.l.. Usually, a vertically inhomogeneous dust plume with internal dust layers was observed in the morning before the evolution of the boundary layer started. The Saharan dust layer was well mixed in the early evening. The 500 nm dust optical depth ranged from 0.2–0.8 at the field site south of the High Atlas mountains, Ångström exponents derived from photometer and lidar data were between 0–0.4. The volume extinction coefficients (355, 532 nm) varied from 30–300Mm−1 with a mean value of 100Mm−1 in the lowest 4 km a.s.l.. On average, extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 53–55 sr (±7–13 sr) were obtained at 355, 532 and 1064 nm.