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    Assessment of lidar depolarization uncertainty by means of a polarimetric lidar simulator
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Belegante, Livio; Freudenthaler, Volker; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Nicolae, Doina; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Amodeo, Aldo; D'Amico, Giusseppe; Engelmann, Ronny; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Kokkalis, Panos; Mamouri, Rodanthy; Papayannis, Alex; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Olmo, Francisco José; Wandinger, Ulla; Amato, Francesco; Haeffelin, Martial
    Lidar depolarization measurements distinguish between spherical and non-spherical aerosol particles based on the change of the polarization state between the emitted and received signal. The particle shape information in combination with other aerosol optical properties allows the characterization of different aerosol types and the retrieval of aerosol particle microphysical properties. Regarding the microphysical inversions, the lidar depolarization technique is becoming a key method since particle shape information can be used by algorithms based on spheres and spheroids, optimizing the retrieval procedure. Thus, the identification of the depolarization error sources and the quantification of their effects are crucial. This work presents a new tool to assess the systematic error of the volume linear depolarization ratio (δ), combining the Stokes–Müller formalism and the complete sampling of the error space using the lidar model presented in Freudenthaler (2016a). This tool is applied to a synthetic lidar system and to several EARLINET lidars with depolarization capabilities at 355 or 532 nm. The lidar systems show relative errors of δ larger than 100 % for δ values around molecular linear depolarization ratios (∼ 0.004 and up to ∼  10 % for δ = 0.45). However, one system shows only relative errors of 25 and 0.22 % for δ = 0.004 and δ = 0.45, respectively, and gives an example of how a proper identification and reduction of the main error sources can drastically reduce the systematic errors of δ. In this regard, we provide some indications of how to reduce the systematic errors.
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    EARLINET instrument intercomparison campaigns: Overview on strategy and results
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Wandinger, Ulla; Freudenthaler, Volker; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Engelmann, Ronny; Mattis, Ina; Groß, Silke; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Giunta, Aldo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Osipenko, Fiodor; Slesar, Alexander; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Serikov, Ilya; Linné, Holger; Jansen, Friedhelm; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; de Graaf, Martin; Trickl, Thomas; Giehl, Helmut; Adam, Mariana; Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sicard, Michaël; Tomás, Sergio; Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Pujadas, Manuel; Molero, Francisco; Fernández, Alfonso J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Gausa, Michael; Grigorov, Ivan; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenco; Spinelli, Nicola; Boselli, Antonella; Wang, Xuan; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Perrone, Maria Rita; De Tomas, Ferdinando; Burlizzi, Pasquale
    This paper introduces the recent European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) quality-assurance efforts at instrument level. Within two dedicated campaigns and five single-site intercomparison activities, 21 EARLINET systems from 18 EARLINET stations were intercompared between 2009 and 2013. A comprehensive strategy for campaign setup and data evaluation has been established. Eleven systems from nine EARLINET stations participated in the EARLINET Lidar Intercomparison 2009 (EARLI09). In this campaign, three reference systems were qualified which served as traveling standards thereafter. EARLINET systems from nine other stations have been compared against these reference systems since 2009. We present and discuss comparisons at signal and at product level from all campaigns for more than 100 individual measurement channels at the wavelengths of 355, 387, 532, and 607 nm. It is shown that in most cases, a very good agreement of the compared systems with the respective reference is obtained. Mean signal deviations in predefined height ranges are typically below ±2 %. Particle backscatter and extinction coefficients agree within ±2  ×  10−4 km−1 sr−1 and ± 0.01 km−1, respectively, in most cases. For systems or channels that showed larger discrepancies, an in-depth analysis of deficiencies was performed and technical solutions and upgrades were proposed and realized. The intercomparisons have reinforced confidence in the EARLINET data quality and allowed us to draw conclusions on necessary system improvements for some instruments and to identify major challenges that need to be tackled in the future.
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    Doppler lidar studies of heat island effects on vertical mixing of aerosols during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Horn, Stefan; Seifert, Patric; Althausen, Dietrich; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Fruntke, Julia; Lieke, Kirsten; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke
    A wind Doppler lidar was deployed next to three aerosol lidars during the SAMUM–2 campaign on the main island of Cape Verde. The effects of the differential heating of the island and the surrounding ocean and the orographic impact of the capital island Santiago and the small island on its luv side, Maio, are investigated. Horizontal and vertical winds were measured in the disturbed maritime boundary layer and compared to local radiosoundings. Lidar measurements from the research aircraft Falcon and a 3-D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model were used in addition to study the heating effects on the scale of the islands. Indications are found that these effects can widely control the downward mixing from greater heights to the surface of African aerosols, mainly Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke, which were detected in a complex layering over the Cape Verde region.
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    Extreme levels of Canadian wildfire smoke in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Mattis, Ina; Veselovskii, Igor; Haarig, Moritz; Seifert, Patric; Engelmann, Ronny; Wandinger, Ulla
    Light extinction coefficients of 500 Mm1, about 20 times higher than after the Pinatubo volcanic eruptions in 1991, were observed by European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017. Pronounced smoke layers with a 1-2 km vertical extent were found 2-5 km above the local tropopause. Optically dense layers of Canadian wildfire smoke reached central Europe 10 days after their injection into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which was caused by rather strong pyrocumulonimbus activity over western Canada. The smoke-related aerosol optical thickness (AOT) identified by lidar was close to 1.0 at 532 nm over Leipzig during the noon hours on 22 August 2017. Smoke particles were found throughout the free troposphere (AOT of 0.3) and in the pronounced 2 km thick stratospheric smoke layer at an altitude of 14-16 km (AOT of 0.6). The lidar observations indicated peak mass concentrations of 70-100 μgm-3 in the stratosphere. In addition to the lidar profiles, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power (FRP) over Canada, and the distribution of MODIS AOT and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index across the North Atlantic. These instruments showed a similar pattern and a clear link between the western Canadian fires and the aerosol load over Europe. In this paper, we also present Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer observations, compare photometer and lidar-derived AOT, and discuss an obvious bias (the smoke AOT is too low) in the photometer observations. Finally, we compare the strength of this recordbreaking smoke event (in terms of the particle extinction coefficient and AOT) with major and moderate volcanic events observed over the northern midlatitudes.
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    Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2017) Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Engelmann, Ronny; Wandinger, Ulla
    Absolute calibrated signals at 532 and 1064 nm and the depolarization ratio from a multiwavelength lidar are used to categorize primary aerosol but also clouds in high temporal and spatial resolution. Automatically derived particle backscatter coefficient profiles in low temporal resolution (30 min) are applied to calibrate the lidar signals. From these calibrated lidar signals, new atmospheric parameters in temporally high resolution (quasi-particle-backscatter coefficients) are derived. By using thresholds obtained from multiyear, multisite EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) measurements, four aerosol classes (small; large, spherical; large, non-spherical; mixed, partly nonspherical) and several cloud classes (liquid, ice) are defined. Thus, particles are classified by their physical features (shape and size) instead of by source. The methodology is applied to 2 months of continuous observations (24 h a day, 7 days a week) with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT during the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013. Cloudnet equipment was operated continuously directly next to the lidar and is used for comparison. By discussing three 24 h case studies, it is shown that the aerosol discrimination is very feasible and informative and gives a good complement to the Cloudnet target categorization. Performing the categorization for the 2-month data set of the entire HOPE campaign, almost 1 million pixel (5 min×30 m) could be analysed with the newly developed tool. We find that the majority of the aerosol trapped in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was composed of small particles as expected for a heavily populated and industrialized area. Large, spherical aerosol was observed mostly at the top of the PBL and close to the identified cloud bases, indicating the importance of hygroscopic growth of the particles at high relative humidity. Interestingly, it is found that on several days non-spherical particles were dispersed from the ground into the atmosphere.
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    First triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dus
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Radenz, Martin; Wandinger, Ulla
    Two layers of Saharan dust observed over Leipzig, Germany, in February and March 2021 were used to provide the first-ever lidar measurements of the dust lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) and linear depolarization ratio at all three classical lidar wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064gnm). The pure-dust conditions during the first event exhibit lidar ratios of 47g±g8, 50g±g5 and 69g±g14gsr and particle linear depolarization ratios of 0.242g±g0.024, 0.299g±g0.018 and 0.206g±g0.010 at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The second, slightly polluted-dust case shows a similar spectral behavior of the lidar and depolarization ratio with values of the lidar ratio of 49g±g4, 46g±g5 and 57g±g9gsr and the depolarization ratio of 0.174g±g0.041, 0.298g±g0.016 and 0.242g±g0.007 at 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The results were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 3 (v3) inversion solutions and the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) at six and seven wavelengths. Both retrieval schemes make use of a spheroid shape model for mineral dust. The spectral slope of the lidar ratio from 532 to 1064gnm could be well reproduced by the AERONET and GRASP retrieval schemes. Higher lidar ratios in the UV were retrieved by AERONET and GRASP. The enhancement was probably caused by the influence of fine-mode pollution particles in the boundary layer which are included in the columnar photometer measurements. Significant differences between the measured and retrieved wavelength dependence of the particle linear depolarization ratio were found. The potential sources for these uncertainties are discussed.
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    The dual-field-of-view polarization lidar technique: A new concept in monitoring aerosol effects in liquid-water clouds - Case studies
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Jimenez, Cristofer; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Donovan, David; Malinka, Aleksey; Seifert, Patric; Wiesen, Robert; Radenz, Martin; Yin, Zhenping; Bühl, Johannes; Schmidt, Jörg; Barja, Boris; Wandinger, Ulla
    In a companion article (Jimenez et al., 2020), we introduced a new lidar method to derive microphysical properties of liquid-water clouds (cloud extinction coefficient, droplet effective radius, liquid-water content, cloud droplet number concentration Nd) at a height of 50-100m above the cloud base together with aerosol information (aerosol extinction coefficients, cloud condensation nuclei concentration NCCN) below the cloud layer so that detailed studies of the influence of given aerosol conditions on the evolution of liquid-water cloud layers with high temporal resolution solely based on lidar observations have become possible now. The novel cloud retrieval technique makes use of lidar observations of the volume linear depolarization ratio at two different receiver field of views (FOVs). In this article, Part 2, the new dual-FOV polarization lidar technique is applied to cloud measurements in pristine marine conditions at Punta Arenas in southern Chile. A multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar, upgraded by integrating a second polarization-sensitive channel to permit depolarization ratio observations at two FOVs, was used for these measurements at the southernmost tip of South America. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the potential of the new lidar technique. Successful aerosol-cloud-interaction (ACI) studies based on measurements with the upgraded aerosol-cloud lidar in combination with a Doppler lidar of the vertical wind component could be carried out with 1 min temporal resolution at these pristine conditions. In a stratocumulus layer at the top of the convective boundary layer, we found values of Nd and NCCN (for 0.2% water supersaturation) ranging from 15-100 and 75-200 cm-3, respectively, during updraft periods. The studies of the aerosol impact on cloud properties yielded ACI values close to 1. The impact of aerosol water uptake on the ACI studies was analyzed with the result that the highest ACI values were obtained when considering aerosol proxies (light-extinction coefficient par or NCCN) measured at heights about 500m below the cloud base (and thus for dry aerosol conditions). © 2020 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
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    Application of the shipborne remote sensing supersite OCEANET for profiling of Arctic aerosols and clouds during Polarstern cruise PS106
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Griesche, Hannes J.; Seifer, Patric; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Velasco, Carola Barrientos; Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Radenz, Martin; Zhenping, Yin; Macke, Andreas
    From 25 May to 21 July 2017, the research vessel Polarstern performed the cruise PS106 to the high Arctic in the region north and northeast of Svalbard. The mobile remote-sensing platform OCEANET was deployed aboard Polarstern. Within a single container, OCEANET houses state-of-the-art remote-sensing equipment, including a multiwavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a 14-channel microwave radiometer HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler). For the cruise PS106, the measurements were supplemented by a motion-stabilized 35 GHz cloud radar Mira-35. This paper describes the treatment of technical challenges which were immanent during the deployment of OCEANET in the high Arctic. This includes the description of the motion stabilization of the cloud radar Mira-35 to ensure vertical-pointing observations aboard the moving Polarstern as well as the applied correction of the vessels heave rate to provide valid Doppler velocities. The correction ensured a leveling accuracy of ±0.5◦ during transits through the ice and an ice floe camp. The applied heave correction reduced the signal induced by the vertical movement of the cloud radar in the PSD of the Doppler velocity by a factor of 15. Low-level clouds, in addition, frequently prevented a continuous analysis of cloud conditions from synergies of lidar and radar within Cloudnet, because the technically determined lowest detection height of Mira-35 was 165 m above sea level. To overcome this obstacle, an approach for identification of the cloud presence solely based on data from the near-field receiver of PollyXT at heights from 50 m and 165 m above sea level is presented. We found low-level stratus clouds, which were below the lowest detection range of most automatic ground-based remote-sensing instruments during 25 % of the observation time. We present case studies of aerosol and cloud studies to introduce the capabilities of the data set. In addition, new approaches for ice crystal effective radius and eddy dissipation rates from cloud radar measurements and the retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from the observations of PollyXT are introduced. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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    Vertical aerosol distribution in the southern hemispheric midlatitudes as observed with lidar in Punta Arenas, Chile (53.2° and 70.9° W), during ALPACA
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Foth, Andreas; Kanitz, Thomas; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Radenz, Martin; Seifert, Patric; Barja, Boris; Fromm, Michael; Kalesse, Heike; Ansmann, Albert
    Within this publication, lidar observations of the vertical aerosol distribution above Punta Arenas, Chile (53.2 S and 70.9 W), which have been performed with the Raman lidar PollyXT from December 2009 to April 2010, are presented. Pristine marine aerosol conditions related to the prevailing westerly circulation dominated the measurements. Lofted aerosol layers could only be observed eight times during the whole measurement period. Two case studies are presented showing long-range transport of smoke from biomass burning in Australia and regionally transported dust from the Patagonian Desert, respectively. The aerosol sources are identified by trajectory analyses with the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model (FLEXPART). However, seven of the eight analysed cases with lofted layers show an aerosol optical thickness of less than 0.05. From the lidar observations, a mean planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height of 1150 350m was determined. An analysis of particle backscatter coefficients confirms that the majority of the aerosol is attributed to the PBL, while the free troposphere is characterized by a very low background aerosol concentration. The ground-based lidar observations at 532 and 1064 nm are supplemented by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometers and the space-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). The averaged aerosol optical thickness (AOT) determined by CALIOP was 0:02 0:01 in Punta Arenas from 2009 to 2010. © Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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    Microphysical investigation of the seeder and feeder region of an Alpine mixed-phase cloud
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Ramelli, Fabiola; Henneberger, Jan; David, Robert O.; Bühl, Johannes; Radenz, Martin; Seifert, Patric; Wieder, Jörg; Lauber, Annika; Pasquier, Julie T.; Engelmann, Ronny; Mignani, Claudia; Hervo, Maxime; Lohmann, Ulrike
    The seeder-feeder mechanism has been observed to enhance orographic precipitation in previous studies. However, the microphysical processes active in the seeder and feeder region are still being understood. In this paper, we investigate the seeder and feeder region of a mixed-phase cloud passing over the Swiss Alps, focusing on (1) fallstreaks of enhanced radar reflectivity originating from cloud top generating cells (seeder region) and (2) a persistent lowlevel feeder cloud produced by the boundary layer circulation (feeder region). Observations were obtained from a multidimensional set of instruments including ground-based remote sensing instrumentation (Ka-band polarimetric cloud radar, microwave radiometer, wind profiler), in situ instrumentation on a tethered balloon system, and ground-based aerosol and precipitation measurements. The cloud radar observations suggest that ice formation and growth were enhanced within cloud top generating cells, which is consistent with previous observational studies. However, uncertainties exist regarding the dominant ice formation mechanism within these cells. Here we propose different mechanisms that potentially enhance ice nucleation and growth in cloud top generating cells (convective overshooting, radiative cooling, droplet shattering) and attempt to estimate their potential contribution from an ice nucleating particle perspective. Once ice formation and growth within the seeder region exceeded a threshold value, the mixedphase cloud became fully glaciated. Local flow effects on the lee side of the mountain barrier induced the formation of a persistent low-level feeder cloud over a small-scale topographic feature in the inner-Alpine valley. In situ measurements within the low-level feeder cloud observed the production of secondary ice particles likely due to the Hallett-Mossop process and ice particle fragmentation upon ice-ice collisions. Therefore, secondary ice production may have been partly responsible for the elevated ice crystal number concentrations that have been previously observed in feeder clouds at mountaintop observatories. Secondary ice production in feeder clouds can potentially enhance orographic precipitation.