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    In situ measurements of optical properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Kaaden, N.; Massling, A.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Deutscher, C.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In situ measurements of optical and physical properties of mineral dust were performed at the outskirts of the Saharan Desert in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment part 1 (SAMUM-1). Goals of the field study were to achieve information on the extent and composition of the dust particle size distribution and the optical properties of dust at the ground. For the particle number size distribution, measured with a DMPS/APS, a size dependent dynamic shape factor was considered. The mean refractive index of the particles in this field study is 1.53–4.1 × 10-3i at 537 nm wavelength and 1.53–3.1 × 10-3i at 637 nm wavelength derived from measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the particle size distribution. Whereas the real part of the refractive index is rather constant, the imaginary part varies depending on the mineral dust concentrations. For high dust concentration the single scattering albedo is primarily influenced by iron oxide and is 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.01 at 537 nm and 637 nm wavelength, respectively. During low dust concentration the single scattering albedo is more influenced by a soot-type absorber and is 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.01 for the same wavelengths.
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    Electron microscopy of particles collected at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: Particle chemistry, shape, mixing state and complex refractive index
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Benker, N.; Emmel, C.; Küpper, M.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Ebert, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schladitz, A.; Schütz, L.; Weinbruch, S.
    A large field experiment of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was performed in Praia, Cape Verde, in January and February 2008. The aerosol at Praia is a superposition of mineral dust, sea-salt, sulphates and soot. Particles smaller than 500 nm are mainly mineral dust, mineral dust–sulphate mixtures, sulphates and soot–sulphate mixtures. Particles larger then 2.5μm consist of mineral dust, sea-salt and few mineral dust–sulphate mixtures. A transition range exists in between. The major internal mixtures are mineral dust–sulphate and soot–sulphate. Mineral dust–sea-salt mixtures occur occasionally, mineral dust–soot mixtures were not observed. The aspect ratio was 1.3–1.4 for dry particles smaller than 500 nm and 1.6–1.7 for larger ones. Parameterizations are given for dry and humid state. Although the real part of the refractive index showed low variation (1.55–1.58 at 532 nm), a multi-modal imaginary part was detected as function of particle size, reflecting the complex composition. Soot mainly influences the absorption for wavelengths longer than the haematite absorption edge, whereas for shorter wavelengths dust is dominating. The refractive index of the aerosol depends on the source region of the mineral dust and on the presence/absence of a marine component.
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    Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region - an overview of the airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; Esselborn, Michael; Petzold, Andreas; Veira, Andreas; Rose, Maximilian; Mund, Susanne; Wirth, Martin; Ansmann, Albert; Tesche, Matthias; Gross, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker
    In the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and in situ measurements of the particle size, aerosol mixing state and absorption coefficient were conducted. Here, the properties of mineral dust and tropical biomass burning layers in the Cape Verde region in January/February 2008 are investigated and compared with the properties of fresh dust observed in May/June 2006 close the Sahara. In the Cape Verde area, we found a complex stratification with dust layers covering the altitude range below 2 km and biomass burning layers aloft. The aerosol type of the individual layers was classified based on depolarization and lidar ratios and, in addition, on in situ measured Ångström exponents of absorption åap. The dust layers had a depth of 1.3 ± 0.4 km and showed a median åap of 3.95. The median effective diameter Deff was 2.5 μm and the dust layers over Cape Verde yielded clear signals of aging: large particles were depleted due to gravitational settling and the accumulation mode diameter was shifted towards larger sizes as a result of coagulation. The tropical biomass layers had a depth of 2.0 ± 1.1 km and were characterized by a median åap of 1.34. They always contained a certain amount of large dust particles and showed a median Deff of 1.1 μm and a fine mode Deff,fine of 0.33. The dust and biomass burning layers had a median aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.23 and 0.09, respectively. The median contributions to the AOD of the total atmospheric column below 10 km were 75 and 37%, respectively.
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    Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kandler, K.; Schütz, L.; Deutscher, C.; Ebert, M.; Hofmann, H.; Jäckel, S.; Jaenicke, R.; Knippertz, P.; Lieke, K.; Massling, A.; Petzold, A.; Schladitz, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zorn, S.; Weinbruch, S.
    During the SAMUM 2006 field campaign in southern Morocco, physical and chemical properties of desert aerosols were measured. Mass concentrations ranging from 30μgm−3 for PM2.5 under desert background conditions up to 300 000μgm−3 for total suspended particles (TSP) during moderate dust storms were measured. TSP dust concentrations are correlated with the local wind speed, whereasPM10 andPM2.5 concentrations are determined by advection from distant sources. Size distributions were measured for particles with diameter between 20 nm and 500μm (parametrizations are given). Two major regimes of the size spectrum can be distinguished. For particles smaller than 500 nm diameter, the distributions show maxima around 80 nm, widely unaffected of varying meteorological and dust emission conditions. For particles larger than 500 nm, the range of variation may be up to one order of magnitude and up to three orders of magnitude for particles larger than 10μm. The mineralogical composition of aerosol bulk samples was measured by X-ray powder diffraction. Major constituents of the aerosol are quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, hematite and the clay minerals illite, kaolinite and chlorite. A small temporal variability of the bulk mineralogical composition was encountered. The chemical composition of approximately 74 000 particles was determined by electron microscopic single particle analysis. Three size regimes are identified: for smaller than 500 nm in diameter, the aerosol consists of sulphates and mineral dust. For larger than 500 nm up to 50μm, mineral dust dominates, consisting mainly of silicates, and—to a lesser extent—carbonates and quartz. For diameters larger than 50μm, approximately half of the particles consist of quartz. Time series of the elemental composition show a moderate temporal variability of the major compounds. Calcium-dominated particles are enhanced during advection from a prominent dust source in Northern Africa (Chott El Djerid and surroundings). The particle aspect ratio was measured for all analysed particles. Its size dependence reflects that of the chemical composition. For larger than 500 nm particle diameter, a median aspect ratio of 1.6 is measured. Towards smaller particles, it decreases to about 1.3 (parametrizations are given). From the chemical/mineralogical composition, the aerosol complex refractive index was determined for several wavelengths from ultraviolet to near-infrared. Both real and imaginary parts show lower values for particles smaller than 500 nm in diameter (1.55–2.8 × 10−3i at 530 nm) and slightly higher values for larger particles (1.57–3.7 × 10−3i at 530 nm).
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    How to find bananas in the atmospheric aerosol': New approach for analyzing atmospheric nucleation and growth events
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Wehner, Birgit; Birmili, Wolfram
    We have devised a new search algorithm for secondary particle formation events, or ‘nucleation events’ in data sets of atmospheric particle size distributions. The search algorithm is simple and based on the investigation of 18 integral parameters of the particle size distribution, three of which were found to be most relevant for identifying nucleation events. The algorithm is tested using long-term size distribution data sets of high-size resolution observed at Melpitz, Hohenpeissenberg, and Leipzig, Germany, and Beijing, China, thereby covering a wide range of clean and polluted conditions. By specifying the particular training sets, the method can be used by other researchers with different data sets or different research goals. The same search approach could be applied to identify and analyze other systematic changes in size distribution such as during frontal passages or sand storms. As an example application of the new algorithm, the 50 strongest nucleation events (‘bananas’) at each of the four sites are analyzed statistically in terms of average changes of integral parameters of the particle size distribution.
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    Thermal IR radiative properties of mixed mineral dust and biomass aerosol during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2011) Köhler, Claas H.; Trautmann, Thomas; Lindermeir, Erwin; Vreeling, Willem; Lieke, Kirsten; Kandler, Konrad; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Groß, Silke; Tesche, Matthias; Wendisch, Manfred
    Ground-based high spectral resolution measurements of downwelling radiances from 800 to 1200 cm−1 were conducted between 20 January and 6 February 2008 within the scope of the SAMUM-2 field experiment. We infer the spectral signature of mixed biomass burning/mineral dust aerosols at the surface from these measurements and at top of the atmosphere from IASI observations. In a case study for a day characterized by the presence of high loads of both dust and biomass we attempt a closure with radiative transfer simulations assuming spherical particles. A detailed sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of uncertainties in the measurements ingested into the simulation on the simulated radiances. Distinct deviations between modelled and observed radiances are limited to a spectral region characterized by resonance bands in the refractive index. A comparison with results obtained during recent laboratory studies and field experiments reveals, that the deviations could be caused by the aerosol particles’ non-sphericity, although an unequivocal discrimination from measurement uncertainties is not possible. Based on radiative transfer simulations we estimate the aerosol’s direct radiative effect in the atmospheric window region to be 8 W m−2 at the surface and 1 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere.
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    Ground-based off-line aerosol measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: Microphysical properties and mineralogy
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kandler, K.; Schütz, L.; Jäckel, S.; Lieke, K.; Emmel, C.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Ebert, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schladitz, A.; Šegvić, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weinbruch, S.
    A large field experiment of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was performed in Praia, Cape Verde, in January and February 2008. This work reports on the aerosol mass concentrations, size distributions and mineralogical composition of the aerosol arriving at Praia. Three dust periods were recorded during the measurements, divided by transitional periods and embedded in maritime-influenced situations. The total suspended particle mass/PM10/PM2.5 were 250/180/74μg/m3 on average for the first dust period (17–21 January) and 250/230/83μg/m3 for the second (24–26 January). The third period (28 January to 2 February) was the most intensive with 410/340/130 μg/m3. Four modes were identified in the size distribution. The first mode (50–70 nm) and partly the second (700–1100 nm) can be regarded as of marine origin, but some dust contributes to the latter. The third mode (2–4 μm) is dominated by advected dust, while the intermittently occurring fourth mode (15–70 μm) may have a local contribution. The dust consisted of kaolinite (dust/maritime period: 35%wt./25%wt.),K-feldspar (20%wt./25%wt.), illite (14%wt./10%wt.), quartz (11%wt./8%wt.), smectites (6%wt./4%wt.), plagioclase (6%wt./1%wt.), gypsum (4%wt./7%wt.), halite (2%wt./17%wt.) and calcite (2%wt./3%wt.).
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    Causes and importance of new particle formation in the present-day and preindustrial atmospheres
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2017) Gordon, Hamish; Kirkby, Jasper; Baltensperger, Urs; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Curtius, Joachim; Dias, Antonio; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Dunne, Eimear M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C.; Frege, Carla; Fuchs, Claudia; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Kulmala, Markku; Kürten, Andreas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Molteni, Ugo; Rissanen, Matti P.; Stozkhov, Yuri; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Yan, Chao; Carslaw, Ken S.
    New particle formation has been estimated to produce around half of cloud-forming particles in the present-day atmosphere, via gas-to-particle conversion. Here we assess the importance of new particle formation (NPF) for both the present-day and the preindustrial atmospheres. We use a global aerosol model with parametrizations of NPF from previously published CLOUD chamber experiments involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, organic molecules, and ions. We find that NPF produces around 67% of cloud condensation nuclei at 0.2% supersaturation (CCN0.2%) at the level of low clouds in the preindustrial atmosphere (estimated uncertainty range 45–84%) and 54% in the present day (estimated uncertainty range 38–66%). Concerning causes, we find that the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in NPF and CCN formation is greater than previously thought. Removing BVOCs and hence all secondary organic aerosol from our model reduces low-cloud-level CCN concentrations at 0.2% supersaturation by 26% in the present-day atmosphere and 41% in the preindustrial. Around three quarters of this reduction is due to the tiny fraction of the oxidation products of BVOCs that have sufficiently low volatility to be involved in NPF and early growth. Furthermore, we estimate that 40% of preindustrial CCN0.2% are formed via ion-induced NPF, compared with 27% in the present day, although we caution that the ion-induced fraction of NPF involving BVOCs is poorly measured at present. Our model suggests that the effect of changes in cosmic ray intensity on CCN is small and unlikely to be comparable to the effect of large variations in natural primary aerosol emissions.
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    Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Groß, Silke; Tesche, Matthias; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Wiegner, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Seefeldner, Meinhard
    The particle linear depolarization ratio δp of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols from southern West Africa and Saharan dust was determined at three wavelengths with three lidar systems during the SAharan Mineral dUst experiMent 2 at the airport of Praia, Cape Verde, between 22 January and 9 February 2008. The lidar ratio Sp of these major types of tropospheric aerosols was analysed at two wavelengths. For Saharan dust, we find wavelength dependent mean particle linear depolarization ratios δp of 0.24–0.27 at 355 nm, 0.29–0.31 at 532 nm and 0.36–0.40 at 710 nm, and wavelength independent mean lidar ratios Sp of 48–70 sr. Mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust show wavelength independent values of δp and Sp between 0.12–0.23 and 57–98 sr, respectively. The mean values of marine aerosols range independent of wavelength for δp from 0.01 to 0.03 and for Sp from 14 to 24 sr.
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    Desert dust aerosol air mass mapping in the western Sahara, using particle properties derived from space-based multi-angle imaging
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Müller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-HUENE, Wolfgang
    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite’s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05–0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR’s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.