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- ItemMass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Robertson, S.; Horányi, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Sternovsky, Z.; Holzworth, R.; Shimogawa, M.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K.; Gumbel, J.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hervig, M.E.MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions), 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately). Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3) and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm) are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into PMSE alone at 84–88 km, found only small number densities (~500 cm−3) of particles >3 nm in a narrow altitude range, 86.5–87.5 km. Both positive (~2000 cm−3) and negative (~4500 cm−3) particles with radii 1–2 nm were detected from 85–87.5 km.
- ItemThe ECOMA 2007 campaign: Rocket observations and numerical modelling of aerosol particle charging and plasma depletion in a PMSE/NLC layer(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Brattli, A.; Lie-Svendsen, Ø.; Svenes, K.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Strelnikova, I.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.; Torkar, K.; Gumbel, J.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.The ECOMA series of rocket payloads use a set of aerosol particle, plasma, and optical instruments to study the properties of aerosol particles and their interaction with the ambient plasma environment in the polar mesopause region. In August 2007 the ECOMA-3 payload was launched into a region with Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) and noctilucent clouds (NLC). An electron depletion was detected in a broad region between 83 and 88 km, coincident with enhanced density of negatively charged aerosol particles. We also find evidence for positive ion depletion in the same region. Charge neutrality requires that a population of positively charged particles smaller than 2 nm and with a density of at least 2×108 m−3 must also have been present in the layer, undetected by the instruments. A numerical model for the charging of aerosol particles and their interaction with the ambient plasma is used to analyse the results, showing that high aerosol particle densities are required in order to explain the observed ion density depletion. The model also shows that a very high photoionisation rate is required for the particles smaller than 2 nm to become positively charged, indicating that these may have a lower work function than pure water ice.
- ItemEarthCARE Aerosol and Cloud Layer and Column Products(Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2018) Wandinger, Ulla; Hünerbein, Anja; Horn, Stefan; Schneider, Florian; Donovan, David; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Daou, David; Docter, Nicole; Fischer, Jürgen; Filipitsch, Florian; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.We introduce the development of EarthCARE Level 2 layer products derived from profile measurements of the high-spectral-resolution lidar ATLID and column products obtained from combined information of ATLID and the Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI). Layer products include cloud top height as well as aerosol layer boundaries and mean optical properties along the satellite nadir track. Synergistic column products comprise cloud top height, Ångström exponent, and aerosol type both along-track and across the MSI swath.
- ItemShip-borne aerosol profiling with lidar over the Atlantic Ocean: From pure marine conditions to complex dust-smoke mixtures(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Bohlmann, S.; Baars, H.; Radenz, M.; Engelmann, R.; Macke, A.The multi-wavelength Raman lidar PollyXT has been regularly operated aboard the research vessel Polarstern on expeditions across the Atlantic Ocean from north to south and vice versa. The lidar measurements of the RV Polarstern cruises PS95 from Bremerhaven, Germany, to Cape Town, Republic of South Africa (November 2015), and PS98 from Punta Arenas, Chile, to Bremerhaven, Germany (April/May 2016), are presented and analysed in detail. The latest set-up of PollyXT allows improved coverage of the marine boundary layer (MBL) due to an additional near-range receiver. Three case studies provide an overview of the aerosol detected over the Atlantic Ocean. In the first case, marine conditions were observed near South Africa on the autumn cruise PS95. Values of optical properties (depolarisation ratios close to zero, lidar ratios of 23 sr at 355 and 532 nm) within the MBL indicate pure marine aerosol. A layer of dried marine aerosol, indicated by an increase of the particle depolarisation ratio to about 10% at 355 nm (9% at 532 nm) and thus confirming the non-sphericity of these particles, could be detected on top of the MBL. On the same cruise, an almost pure Saharan dust plume was observed near the Canary Islands, presented in the second case. The third case deals with several layers of Saharan dust partly mixed with biomass-burning smoke measured on PS98 near the Cabo Verde islands. While the MBL was partly mixed with dust in the pure Saharan dust case, an almost marine MBL was observed in the third case. A statistical analysis showed latitudinal differences in the optical properties within the MBL, caused by the downmixing of dust in the tropics and anthropogenic influences in the northern latitudes, whereas the optical properties of the MBL in the Southern Hemisphere correlate with typical marine values. The particle depolarisation ratio of dried marine layers ranged between 4 and 9% at 532 nm. Night measurements from PS95 and PS98 were used to illustrate the potential of aerosol classification using lidar ratio, particle depolarisation ratio at 355 and 532 nm, and Angström exponent. Lidar ratio and particle depolarisation ratio have been found to be the main indicator for particle type, whereas the Ångström exponent is rather variable.
- ItemOccurrence of polar mesosphere summer echoes at very high latitudes(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Zecha, M.; Röttger, J.Observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) have been carried out during the summer periodes 1999–2001 and 2003–2004 at the very high latitude of 78° N using the SOUSY Svalbard Radar (53.5 MHz) at Longyearbyen. Although the measurements could not be done continuously in these seasons, PMSE have been detected over more than 6600 h of 9300 h of observation time overall. Using this data base, particular PMSE occurrence characteristics have been determined. PMSE at Svalbard appear from the middle of May to the end of August with an almost permanent total occurrence in June and July. Diurnal variations are observable in the height-depend occurrence rates and in PMSE thickness, they show a maximum around 09:00–10:00 UTC and a minimum around 21:00–22:00 UTC. PMSE occur nearly exclusively between a height of 80 km and 92 km with a maximum near 85 km. However, PMSE appear not simultaneously over the entire height range, the mean vertical PMSE extension is around 4–6 km in June and July. Furthermore, typically PMSE are separated into several layers, and only 30% of all PMSE are single layers. The probability of multiple layers is greater in June and July than at the beginning and the end of the PMSE season and shows a marked 5-day-variation. The same variation is noticeable in the seasonal dependence of the PMSE occurrence and the PMSE thickness. We finally discuss potential geophysical processes to explain our observational results.
- ItemThe global aerosol-climate model echam6.3-ham2.3 -Part 1: Aerosol evaluation(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Tegen, I.; Neubauer, D.; Ferrachat, S.; Drian, C.S.-L.; Bey, I.; Schutgens, N.; Stier, P.; Watson-Parris, D.; Stanelle, T.; Schmidt, H.; Rast, S.; Kokkola, H.; Schultz, M.; Schroeder, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Barthel, S.; Heinold, B.; Lohmann, U.We introduce and evaluate aerosol simulations with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3, which is the aerosol component of the fully coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. Both the host atmospheric climate model ECHAM6.3 and the aerosol model HAM2.3 were updated from previous versions. The updated version of the HAM aerosol model contains improved parameterizations of aerosol processes such as cloud activation, as well as updated emission fields for anthropogenic aerosol species and modifications in the online computation of sea salt and mineral dust aerosol emissions. Aerosol results from nudged and free-running simulations for the 10-year period 2003 to 2012 are compared to various measurements of aerosol properties. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall in terms of aerosol optical thickness, but may underestimate coarse-mode aerosol concentrations to some extent so that the modeled particles are smaller than indicated by the observations. Sulfate aerosol measurements in the US and Europe are reproduced well by the model, while carbonaceous aerosol species are biased low. Both mineral dust and sea salt aerosol concentrations are improved compared to previous versions of ECHAM-HAM. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol distributions serves as a basis for the suitability of the model for simulating aerosol-climate interactions in a changing climate.
- ItemThe impact of mineral dust on cloud formation during the Saharan dust event in April 2014 over Europe(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Weger, M.; Heinold, B.; Engler, C.; Schumann, U.; Seifert, A.; Fößig, R.; Voigt, C.; Baars, H.; Blahak, U.; Borrmann, S.; Hoose, C.; Kaufmann, S.; Krämer, M.; Seifert, P.; Senf, F.; Schneider, J.; Tegen, I.A regional modeling study on the impact of desert dust on cloud formation is presented for a major Saharan dust outbreak over Europe from 2 to 5 April 2014. The dust event coincided with an extensive and dense cirrus cloud layer, suggesting an influence of dust on atmospheric ice nucleation. Using interactive simulation with the regional dust model COSMO-MUSCAT, we investigate cloud and precipitation representation in the model and test the sensitivity of cloud parameters to dust-cloud and dust-radiation interactions of the simulated dust plume. We evaluate model results with ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the in situ measurements obtained during the ML-CIRRUS aircraft campaign. A run of the model with single-moment bulk microphysics without online dust feedback considerably underestimated cirrus cloud cover over Germany in the comparison with infrared satellite imagery. This was also reflected in simulated upper-Tropospheric ice water content (IWC), which accounted for only 20 % of the observed values. The interactive dust simulation with COSMO-MUSCAT, including a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme and dust-cloud as well as dust-radiation feedback, in contrast, led to significant improvements. The modeled cirrus cloud cover and IWC were by at least a factor of 2 higher in the relevant altitudes compared to the noninteractive model run. We attributed these improvements mainly to enhanced deposition freezing in response to the high mineral dust concentrations. This was corroborated further in a significant decrease in ice particle radii towards more realistic values, compared to in situ measurements from the ML-CIRRUS aircraft campaign. By testing different empirical ice nucleation parameterizations, we further demonstrate that remaining uncertainties in the ice-nucleating properties of mineral dust affect the model performance at least as significantly as including the online representation of the mineral dust distribution. Dust-radiation interactions played a secondary role for cirrus cloud formation, but contributed to a more realistic representation of precipitation by suppressing moist convection in southern Germany. In addition, a too-low specific humidity in the 7 to 10 km altitude range in the boundary conditions was identified as one of the main reasons for misrepresentation of cirrus clouds in this model study.