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    Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation for secondary organic aerosols-Part 3: Influence of the chemical composition on the hygroscopic properties and volatile fractions of aerosols
    (Göttingen : Copernicus, 2010) Poulain, L.; Wu, Z.; Petters, M.D.; Wex, H.; Hallbauer, E.; Wehner, B.; Massling, A.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Stratmann, F.
    The influence of varying levels of water mixing ratio,r during the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the ozonolysis of α-pinene on the SOA hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated. The reaction proceeded and aerosols were generated in a mixing chamber and the hygroscopic characteristics of the SOA were determined with the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc). In parallel, a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) located downstream of a thermodenuder (TD) sampling from the mixing chamber, to collect mass spectra of particles from the volatile and less-volatile fractions of the SOA. Results showed that both hygroscopic growth and the volatile fraction of the SOA increased with increases in r inside the mixing chamber during SOA generation. An effective density of 1.40 g cm-3 was observed for the generated SOA when the reaction proceeded with <1 g kg-1. Changes in the concentrations of the fragment CO2+ and the sum of CxH+y(short name CHO) and CxH+y (short name CH) fragments as measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were used to estimate changes in the oxidation level of the SOA with reaction conditions, using the ratios CO2 + to CH and CHO to CH. Under humid conditions, both ratios increased, corresponding to the presence of more oxygenated functional groups (i.e., multifunctional carboxylic acids). This result is consistent with the α-pinene ozonolysis mechanisms which suggest that water interacts with the stabilized Criegee intermediate. The volatility and the hygroscopicity results show that SOA generation via ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of water vapour (r <16.9 g kg-1) leads to the formation of more highly oxygenated compounds that are more hygroscopic and more volatile than compounds formed under dry conditions. © 2010 Author(s).
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    Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules (HOM) from Gas-Phase Autoxidation Involving Peroxy Radicals: A Key Contributor to Atmospheric Aerosol
    (Washington, DC : ACS Publ., 2019) Bianchi, Federico; Kurtén, Theo; Riva, Matthieu; Mohr, Claudia; Rissanen, Matti P.; Roldin, Pontus; Berndt, Torsten; Crounse, John D.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Mentel, Thomas F.; Wildt, Jürgen; Junninen, Heikki; Jokinen, Tuija; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Thornton, Joel A.; Donahue, Neil; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Ehn, Mikael
    Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) are formed in the atmosphere via autoxidation involving peroxy radicals arising from volatile organic compounds (VOC). HOM condense on pre-existing particles and can be involved in new particle formation. HOM thus contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol known to affect the Earth's radiation balance. HOM were discovered only very recently, but the interest in these compounds has grown rapidly. In this Review, we define HOM and describe the currently available techniques for their identification/quantification, followed by a summary of the current knowledge on their formation mechanisms and physicochemical properties. A main aim is to provide a common frame for the currently quite fragmented literature on HOM studies. Finally, we highlight the existing gaps in our understanding and suggest directions for future HOM research. © 2019 American Chemical Society.