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    Implementation of aerosol-cloud interactions in the regional atmosphere-aerosol model COSMO-Muscat(5.0) and evaluation using satellite data
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2017) Dipu, Sudhakar; Quaas, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Stoll, Jens; Mühlbauer, Andreas; Sourdeval, Odran; Salzmann, Marc; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina
    The regional atmospheric model Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) coupled to the Multi-Scale Chemistry Aerosol Transport model (Muscat) is extended in this work to represent aerosol-cloud interactions. Previously, only one-way interactions (scavenging of aerosol and in-cloud chemistry) and aerosol-radiation interactions were included in this model. The new version allows for a microphysical aerosol effect on clouds. For this, we use the optional two-moment cloud microphysical scheme in COSMO and the online-computed aerosol information for cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (Cccn), replacing the constant Cccn profile. In the radiation scheme, we have implemented a droplet-size-dependent cloud optical depth, allowing now for aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. To evaluate the models with satellite data, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observation Simulator Package (COSP) has been implemented. A case study has been carried out to understand the effects of the modifications, where the modified modeling system is applied over the European domain with a horizontal resolution of 0.25°g × g0.25°. To reduce the complexity in aerosol-cloud interactions, only warm-phase clouds are considered. We found that the online-coupled aerosol introduces significant changes for some cloud microphysical properties. The cloud effective radius shows an increase of 9.5g%, and the cloud droplet number concentration is reduced by 21.5g%.
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    EC-Earth3-AerChem: a global climate model with interactive aerosols and atmospheric chemistry participating in CMIP6
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2021-9-13) van Noije, Twan; Bergman, Tommi; Le Sager, Philippe; O'Donnell, Declan; Makkonen, Risto; Gonçalves-Ageitos, María; Döscher, Ralf; Fladrich, Uwe; von Hardenberg, Jost; Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka; Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Ollinaho, Pirkka; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Reerink, Thomas; Schrödner, Roland; Wyser, Klaus; Yang, Shuting
    This paper documents the global climate model EC-Earth3-AerChem, one of the members of the EC-Earth3 family of models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). EC-Earth3-AerChem has interactive aerosols and atmospheric chemistry and contributes to the Aerosols and Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP). In this paper, we give an overview of the model, describe in detail how it differs from the other EC-Earth3 configurations, and outline the new features compared with the previously documented version of the model (EC-Earth 2.4). We explain how the model was tuned and spun up under preindustrial conditions and characterize the model's general performance on the basis of a selection of coupled simulations conducted for CMIP6. The net energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere in the preindustrial control simulation is on average −0.09 W m−2 with a standard deviation due to interannual variability of 0.25 W m−2, showing no significant drift. The global surface air temperature in the simulation is on average 14.08 ∘C with an interannual standard deviation of 0.17 ∘C, exhibiting a small drift of 0.015 ± 0.005 ∘C per century. The model's effective equilibrium climate sensitivity is estimated at 3.9 ∘C, and its transient climate response is estimated at 2.1 ∘C. The CMIP6 historical simulation displays spurious interdecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere temperatures, resulting in a large spread across ensemble members and a tendency to underestimate observed annual surface temperature anomalies from the early 20th century onwards. The observed warming of the Southern Hemisphere is well reproduced by the model. Compared with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5), the surface air temperature climatology for 1995–2014 has an average bias of −0.86 ± 0.05 ∘C with a standard deviation across ensemble members of 0.35 ∘C in the Northern Hemisphere and 1.29 ± 0.02 ∘C with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.05 ∘C in the Southern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere warm bias is largely caused by errors in shortwave cloud radiative effects over the Southern Ocean, a deficiency of many climate models. Changes in the emissions of near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) have significant effects on the global climate from the second half of the 20th century onwards. For the SSP3-7.0 Shared Socioeconomic Pathway, the model gives a global warming at the end of the 21st century (2091–2100) of 4.9 ∘C above the preindustrial mean. A 0.5 ∘C stronger warming is obtained for the AerChemMIP scenario with reduced emissions of NTCFs. With concurrent reductions of future methane concentrations, the warming is projected to be reduced by 0.5 ∘C.
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    CAPRAM reduction towards an operational multiphase halogen and dimethyl sulfide chemistry treatment in the chemistry transport model COSMO-Muscat(5.04e)
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Hoffmann, Erik H.; Schrödner, Roland; Tilgner, Andreas; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut
    A condensed multiphase halogen and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) chemistry mechanism for application in chemistry transport models is developed by reducing the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (CAPRAM-DM1.0) and the CAPRAM halogen module 3.0 (CAPRAM-HM3.0). The reduction is achieved by determining the main oxidation pathways from analysing the mass fluxes of complex multiphase chemistry simulations with the air parcel model SPACCIM (SPectral Aerosol Cloud Chemistry Interaction Model). These simulations are designed to cover both pristine and polluted marine boundary layer conditions. Overall, the reduced CAPRAM-DM1.0 contains 32 gas-phase reactions, 5 phase transfers, and 12 aqueous-phase reactions, of which two processes are described as equilibrium reactions. The reduced CAPRAM-HM3.0 contains 199 gas-phase reactions, 23 phase transfers, and 87 aqueous-phase reactions. For the aqueous-phase chemistry, 39 processes are described as chemical equilibrium reactions. A comparison of simulations using the complete CAPRAM-DM1.0 and CAPRAM-HM3.0 mechanisms against the reduced ones indicates that the relative deviations are below 5 % for important inorganic and organic air pollutants and key reactive species under pristine ocean and polluted conditions. The reduced mechanism has been implemented into the chemical transport model COSMO-MUSCAT and tested by performing 2D simulations under prescribed meteorological conditions that investigate the effect of stable (stratiform cloud) and more unstable meteorological conditions (convective clouds) on marine multiphase chemistry. The simulated maximum concentration of HCl is of the order of 109 molecules cm−3 and that of BrO is around 1×107 molecules cm−3, reproducing the range of ambient measurements. Afterwards, the oxidation pathways of DMS in a cloudy marine atmosphere have been investigated in detail. The simulations demonstrate that clouds have both a direct and an indirect photochemical effect on the multiphase processing of DMS and its oxidation products. The direct photochemical effect is related to in-cloud chemistry that leads to high dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) oxidation rates and a subsequently enhanced formation of methane sulfonic acid compared to aerosol chemistry. The indirect photochemical effect is characterized by cloud shading, which occurs particularly in the case of stratiform clouds. The lower photolysis rate affects the activation of Br atoms and consequently lowers the formation of BrO radicals. The corresponding DMS oxidation flux is lowered by up to 30 % under thick optical clouds. Moreover, high updraught velocities lead to a strong vertical mixing of DMS into the free troposphere predominately under cloudy conditions. The photolysis of hypohalous acids (HOX, X = Cl, Br, or I) is reduced as well, resulting in higher HOX-driven sulfite-to-sulfate oxidation in aerosol particles below stratiform clouds. Altogether, the present model simulations have demonstrated the ability of the reduced mechanism to be applied in studying marine aerosol–cloud processing effects in regional models such as COSMO-MUSCAT. The reduced mechanism can be used also by other regional models for more adequate interpretations of complex marine field measurement data.
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    The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3-Part 2: Cloud evaluation, aerosol radiative forcing, and climate sensitivity
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Neubauer, David; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stier, Philip; Partridge, Daniel G.; Tegen, Ina; Bey, Isabelle; Stanelle, Tanja; Kokkola, Harri; Lohmann, Ulrike
    The global aerosol–climate model ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3 (E63H23) as well as the previous model versions ECHAM5.5–HAM2.0 (E55H20) and ECHAM6.1–HAM2.2 (E61H22) are evaluated using global observational datasets for clouds and precipitation. In E63H23, the amount of low clouds, the liquid and ice water path, and cloud radiative effects are more realistic than in previous model versions. E63H23 has a more physically based aerosol activation scheme, improvements in the cloud cover scheme, changes in the detrainment of convective clouds, changes in the sticking efficiency for the accretion of ice crystals by snow, consistent ice crystal shapes throughout the model, and changes in mixed-phase freezing; an inconsistency in ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) in cirrus clouds was also removed. Common biases in ECHAM and in E63H23 (and in previous ECHAM–HAM versions) are a cloud amount in stratocumulus regions that is too low and deep convective clouds over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans that form too close to the continents (while tropical land precipitation is underestimated). There are indications that ICNCs are overestimated in E63H23. Since clouds are important for effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFari+aci) and equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), differences in ERFari+aci and ECS between the model versions were also analyzed. ERFari+aci is weaker in E63H23 (−1.0 W m−2) than in E61H22 (−1.2 W m−2) (or E55H20; −1.1 W m−2). This is caused by the weaker shortwave ERFari+aci (a new aerosol activation scheme and sea salt emission parameterization in E63H23, more realistic simulation of cloud water) overcompensating for the weaker longwave ERFari+aci (removal of an inconsistency in ICNC in cirrus clouds in E61H22). The decrease in ECS in E63H23 (2.5 K) compared to E61H22 (2.8 K) is due to changes in the entrainment rate for shallow convection (affecting the cloud amount feedback) and a stronger cloud phase feedback. Experiments with minimum cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCmin) of 40 cm−3 or 10 cm−3 show that a higher value of CDNCmin reduces ERFari+aci as well as ECS in E63H23.
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    Coupling aerosols to (cirrus) clouds in the global EMAC-MADE3 aerosol–climate model
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Lohmann, Ulrike; Beer, Christof Gerhard; Hahn, Valerian; Heinold, Bernd; Heller, Romy; Krämer, Martina; Ponater, Michael; Rolf, Christian; Tegen, Ina; Voigt, Christiane
    A new cloud microphysical scheme including a detailed parameterization for aerosol-driven ice formation in cirrus clouds is implemented in the global ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) chemistry–climate model and coupled to the third generation of the Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe adapted for global applications (MADE3) aerosol submodel. The new scheme is able to consistently simulate three regimes of stratiform clouds – liquid, mixed-, and ice-phase (cirrus) clouds – considering the activation of aerosol particles to form cloud droplets and the nucleation of ice crystals. In the cirrus regime, it allows for the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing for the available supersaturated water vapor, taking into account different types of ice-nucleating particles, whose specific ice-nucleating properties can be flexibly varied in the model setup. The new model configuration is tuned to find the optimal set of parameters that minimizes the model deviations with respect to observations. A detailed evaluation is also performed comparing the model results for standard cloud and radiation variables with a comprehensive set of observations from satellite retrievals and in situ measurements. The performance of EMAC-MADE3 in this new coupled configuration is in line with similar global coupled models and with other global aerosol models featuring ice cloud parameterizations. Some remaining discrepancies, namely a high positive bias in liquid water path in the Northern Hemisphere and overestimated (underestimated) cloud droplet number concentrations over the tropical oceans (in the extratropical regions), which are both a common problem in these kinds of models, need to be taken into account in future applications of the model. To further demonstrate the readiness of the new model system for application studies, an estimate of the anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) is provided, showing that EMAC-MADE3 simulates a relatively strong aerosol-induced cooling but within the range reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments.
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    The realization of autonomous, aircraft-based, real-time aerosol mass spectrometry in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Dragoneas, Antonis; Molleker, Sergej; Appel, Oliver; Hünig, Andreas; Böttger, Thomas; Hermann, Markus; Drewnick, Frank; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan
    We report on the developments that enabled the field deployment of a fully automated aerosol mass spectrometer, especially designed for high-altitude measurements on unpressurized aircraft. The merits of the two main categories of real-time aerosol mass spectrometry, i.e. (a) single-particle laser desorption and ionization and (b) continuous thermal desorption and electron impact ionization of aerosols, have been integrated into one compact apparatus with the aim to perform in situ real-time analysis of aerosol chemical composition. The demonstrated instrument, named the ERICA (European Research Council Instrument for Chemical composition of Aerosols), operated successfully aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica at altitudes up to 20 km while being exposed to ambient conditions of very low atmospheric pressure and temperature. A primary goal of those field deployments was the in situ study of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL). During 11 research flights, the instrument operated for more than 49 h and collected chemical composition information of more than 150 000 single particles combined with quantitative chemical composition analysis of aerosol particle ensembles. This paper presents in detail the technical characteristics of the main constituent parts of the instrument, as well as the design considerations for its integration into the aircraft and its autonomous operation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Additionally, system performance data from the first field deployments of the instrument are presented and discussed, together with exemplary mass spectrometry data collected during those flights.
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    Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10nm aerosol nanoparticles
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Lei, Ting; Ma, Nan; Hong, Juan; Tuch, Thomas; Wang, Xin; Wang, Zhibin; Pöhlker, Mira; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang; Mikhailov, Eugene; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cheng, Yafang
    Interactions between water and nanoparticles are relevant for atmospheric multiphase processes, physical chemistry, and materials science. Current knowledge of the hygroscopic and related physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, however, is restricted by the limitations of the available measurement techniques. Here, we present the design and performance of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. Detailed methods of calibration and validation are provided. Besides maintaining accurate and stable sheath and aerosol flow rates (1 %), high accuracy of the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) voltage (0:1 %) in the range of 0-50V is crucial for achieving accurate sizing and small sizing offsets between the two DMAs (1:4 %). To maintain a stable relative humidity (RH), the humidification system and the second DMA are placed in a well-insulated and air conditioner housing (0:1 K). We also tested and discussed different ways of preventing predeliquescence in the second DMA. Our measurement results for ammonium sulfate nanoparticles are in good agreement with Biskos et al. (2006b), with no significant size effect on the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity (DRH and ERH, respectively) at diameters down to 6 nm. For sodium sulfate nanoparticles, however, we find a pronounced size dependence of DRH and ERH between 20 and 6 nm nanoparticles. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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    CAMP: An instrumented platform for balloon-borne aerosol particle studies in the lower atmosphere
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Pilz, Christian; Düsing, Sebastian; Wehner, Birgit; Müller, Thomas; Siebert, Holger; Voigtländer, Jens; Lonardi, Michael
    Airborne observations of vertical aerosol particle distributions are crucial for detailed process studies and model improvements. Tethered balloon systems represent a less expensive alternative to aircraft to probe shallow atmospheric boundary layers (ABLs). This study presents the newly developed cubic aerosol measurement platform (CAMP) for balloon-borne observations of aerosol particle microphysical properties. With an edge length of 35 cm and a weight of 9 kg, the cube is an environmentally robust instrument platform intended for measurements at low temperatures, with a particular focus on applications in cloudy Arctic ABLs. The aerosol instrumentation on board CAMP comprises two condensation particle counters with different lower detection limits, one optical particle size spectrometer, and a miniaturized absorption photometer. Comprehensive calibrations and characterizations of the instruments were performed in laboratory experiments. The first field study with a tethered balloon system took place at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) station in Melpitz, Germany, in the winter of 2019. At ambient temperatures between-8 and 15 C, the platform was operated up to a 1.5 km height on 14 flights under both clear-sky and cloudy conditions. The continuous aerosol observations at the ground station served as a reference for evaluating the CAMP measurements. Exemplary profiles are discussed to elucidate the performance of the system and possible process studies. Based on the laboratory instrument characterizations and the observations during the field campaign, CAMP demonstrated the capability to provide comprehensive aerosol particle measurements in cold and cloudy ABLs.
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    3+2 + X : what is the most useful depolarization input for retrieving microphysical properties of non-spherical particles from lidar measurements using the spheroid model of Dubovik et al. (2006)?
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Tesche, Matthias; Kolgotin, Alexei; Haarig, Moritz; Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Müller, Detlef
    The typical multiwavelength aerosol lidar data set for inversion of optical to microphysical parameters is composed of three backscatter coefficients (β) at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and two extinction coefficients (α) at 355 and 532 nm. This data combination is referred to as a 3β C 2α or 3 + 2 data set. This set of data is sufficient for retrieving some important microphysical particle parameters if the particles have spherical shape. Here, we investigate the effect of including the particle linear depolarization ratio (δ) as a third input parameter for the inversion of lidar data. The inversion algorithm is generally not used if measurements show values of d that exceed 0.10 at 532 nm, i.e. in the presence of nonspherical particles such as desert dust, volcanic ash, and, under special circumstances, biomass-burning smoke. We use experimental data collected with instruments that are capable of measuring d at all three lidar wavelengths with an inversion routine that applies the spheroidal light-scattering model of Dubovik et al. (2006) with a fixed axis-ratio distribution to replicate scattering properties of non-spherical particles. The inversion gives the fraction of spheroids required to replicate the optical data as an additional output parameter. This is the first systematic test of the effect of using all theoretically possible combinations of d taken at 355, 532, and 1064 nm as input in the lidar data inversion. We find that depolarization information of at least one wavelength already provides useful information for the inversion of optical data that have been collected in the presence of non-spherical mineral dust particles. However, any choice of d will give lower values of the single-scattering albedo than the traditional 3 + 2 data set. We find that input data sets that include d355 give a spheroid fraction that closely resembles the dust ratio we obtain from using β532 and d532 in a methodology applied in aerosol-type separation. The use of d355 in data sets of two or three d? reduces the spheroid fraction that is retrieved when using d532 and d1064. Use of the latter two parameters without accounting for d355 generally leads to high spheroid fractions that we consider not trustworthy. The use of three d instead of two δ, including the constraint that one of these is measured at 355 nm does not provide any advantage over using 3 + 2 + d355 for the observations with varying contributions of mineral dust considered here. However, additional measurements at wavelengths different from 355 nm would be desirable for application to a wider range of aerosol scenarios that may include non-spherical smoke particles, which can have values of d355 that are indistinguishable from those found for mineral dust. We therefore conclude that - depending on measurement capability - the future standard input for inversion of lidar data taken in the presence of mineral dust particles and using the spheroid model of Dubovik et al. (2006) might be 3+2Cδ355 or 3 + 2 + δ355 + δ532. © 2019 The Author(s).
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    Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George
    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 μm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.