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    Importance of secondary organic aerosol formation of iα/i-pinene, limonene, and im/i-cresol comparing day- And nighttime radical chemistry
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Mutzel, Anke; Zhang, Yanli; Böge, Olaf; Rodigast, Maria; Kolodziejczyk, Agata; Wang, Xinming; Herrmann, Hartmut
    The oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass (SOA). The present study aims to investigate span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene, limonene, and span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"im/i/span-cresol with regards to their SOA formation potential dependent on relative humidity (RH) under night- (NOspan classCombining double low line"inline-formula"3/span radicals) and daytime conditions (OH radicals) and the resulting chemical composition. It was found that SOA formation potential of limonene with NOspan classCombining double low line"inline-formula"3/span under dry conditions significantly exceeds that of the OH-radical reaction, with SOA yields of 15-30 % and 10-21 %, respectively. Additionally, the nocturnal SOA yield was found to be very sensitive towards RH, yielding more SOA under dry conditions. In contrast, the SOA formation potential of span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene with NOspan classCombining double low line"inline-formula"3/span slightly exceeds that of the OH-radical reaction, independent from RH. On average, span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene yielded SOA with about 6-7 % from NOspan classCombining double low line"inline-formula"3/span radicals and 3-4 % from OH-radical reaction. Surprisingly, unexpectedly high SOA yields were found for span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"im/i/span-cresol oxidation with OH radicals (3-9 %), with the highest yield under elevated RH (9 %), which is most likely attributable to a higher fraction of 3-methyl-6-nitro-catechol (MNC). While span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene and span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"im/i/span-cresol SOA was found to be mainly composed of water-soluble compounds, 50-68 % of nocturnal SOA and 22-39 % of daytime limonene SOA are water-insoluble. The fraction of SOA-bound peroxides which originated from span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene varied between 2 and 80 % as a function of RH./p pFurthermore, SOA from span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"iα/i/span-pinene revealed pinonic acid as the most important particle-phase constituent under day- and nighttime conditions with a fraction of 1-4 %. Other compounds detected are norpinonic acid (0.05-1.1 % mass fraction), terpenylic acid (0.1-1.1 % mass fraction), pinic acid (0.1-1.8 % mass fraction), and 3-methyl-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (0.05-0.5 % mass fraction). All marker compounds showed higher fractions under dry conditions when formed during daytime and showed almost no RH effect when formed during night./p © 2021 Copernicus GmbH. All rights reserved.
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    Aerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particles
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Schoenberg, Pontus von; Tunved, Peter; Grahn, Håkan; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Krejci, Radovan; Brännström, Niklas
    In the event of a failure of a nuclear power plant with release of radioactive material into the atmosphere, dispersion modelling is used to understand how the released radioactivity is spread. For the dispersion of particles, Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) are commonly used, in which model particles, representing the released material, are transported through the atmosphere. These model particles are usually inert and undergo only first-order processes such as dry deposition and simplified wet deposition along the path through the atmosphere. Aerosol dynamic processes including coagulation, condensational growth, chemical interactions, formation of new particles and interaction with new aerosol sources are usually neglected in such models. The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of these advanced aerosol dynamic processes if they were to be included in LPDM simulations for use in radioactive preparedness. In this investigation, a fictitious failure of a nuclear power plant is studied for three geographically and atmospherically different sites. The incident was simulated with a Lagrangian single-trajectory box model with a new simulation for each hour throughout a year to capture seasonal variability of meteorology and variation in the ambient aerosol. (a) We conclude that modelling of wet deposition by incorporating an advanced cloud parameterization is advisable, since it significantly influence simulated levels of airborne and deposited activity including radioactive hotspots, and (b) we show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations that adopt a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions. The results highlight a potential necessity for implementation of more detailed representation of general aerosol dynamic processes into LPDMs in order to cover the full range of possible environmental characteristics that can apply during a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere.
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    A phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sites
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Bousiotis, Dimitrios; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C. S.; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø; Nordstrøm, Claus; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Portin, Harri; Petäjä, Tuukka; Perez, Noemi; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Tuch, Thomas; Harrison, Roy M.
    New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially, and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long-term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of 3 years) from 13 sites of various land uses and climates from across Europe were studied, and NPF events, deriving from secondary formation and not traffic-related nucleation, were extracted and analysed. The frequency of NPF events was consistently found to be higher at rural background sites, while the growth and formation rates of newly formed particles were higher at roadsides (though in many cases differences between the sites were small), underlining the importance of the abundance of condensable compounds of anthropogenic origin found there. The growth rate was higher in summer at all rural background sites studied. The urban background sites presented the highest uncertainty due to greater variability compared to the other two types of site. The origin of incoming air masses and the specific conditions associated with them greatly affect the characteristics of NPF events. In general, cleaner air masses present higher probability for NPF events, while the more polluted ones show higher growth rates. However, different patterns of NPF events were found, even at sites in close proximity (<ĝ€¯200ĝ€¯km), due to the different local conditions at each site. Region-wide events were also studied and were found to be associated with the same conditions as local events, although some variability was found which was associated with the different seasonality of the events at two neighbouring sites. NPF events were responsible for an increase in the number concentration of ultrafine particles of more than 400ĝ€¯% at rural background sites on the day of their occurrence. The degree of enhancement was less at urban sites due to the increased contribution of other sources within the urban environment. It is evident that, while some variables (such as solar radiation intensity, relative humidity, or the concentrations of specific pollutants) appear to have a similar influence on NPF events across all sites, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of NPF events at a site using just these variables, due to the crucial role of local conditions. © Author(s) 2021.
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    Microphysical investigation of the seeder and feeder region of an Alpine mixed-phase cloud
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Ramelli, Fabiola; Henneberger, Jan; David, Robert O.; Bühl, Johannes; Radenz, Martin; Seifert, Patric; Wieder, Jörg; Lauber, Annika; Pasquier, Julie T.; Engelmann, Ronny; Mignani, Claudia; Hervo, Maxime; Lohmann, Ulrike
    The seeder-feeder mechanism has been observed to enhance orographic precipitation in previous studies. However, the microphysical processes active in the seeder and feeder region are still being understood. In this paper, we investigate the seeder and feeder region of a mixed-phase cloud passing over the Swiss Alps, focusing on (1) fallstreaks of enhanced radar reflectivity originating from cloud top generating cells (seeder region) and (2) a persistent lowlevel feeder cloud produced by the boundary layer circulation (feeder region). Observations were obtained from a multidimensional set of instruments including ground-based remote sensing instrumentation (Ka-band polarimetric cloud radar, microwave radiometer, wind profiler), in situ instrumentation on a tethered balloon system, and ground-based aerosol and precipitation measurements. The cloud radar observations suggest that ice formation and growth were enhanced within cloud top generating cells, which is consistent with previous observational studies. However, uncertainties exist regarding the dominant ice formation mechanism within these cells. Here we propose different mechanisms that potentially enhance ice nucleation and growth in cloud top generating cells (convective overshooting, radiative cooling, droplet shattering) and attempt to estimate their potential contribution from an ice nucleating particle perspective. Once ice formation and growth within the seeder region exceeded a threshold value, the mixedphase cloud became fully glaciated. Local flow effects on the lee side of the mountain barrier induced the formation of a persistent low-level feeder cloud over a small-scale topographic feature in the inner-Alpine valley. In situ measurements within the low-level feeder cloud observed the production of secondary ice particles likely due to the Hallett-Mossop process and ice particle fragmentation upon ice-ice collisions. Therefore, secondary ice production may have been partly responsible for the elevated ice crystal number concentrations that have been previously observed in feeder clouds at mountaintop observatories. Secondary ice production in feeder clouds can potentially enhance orographic precipitation.
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    Variability in the mass absorption cross section of black carbon (BC) aerosols is driven by BC internal mixing state at a central European background site (Melpitz, Germany) in winter
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Yuan, Jinfeng; Modini, Robin Lewis; Zanatta, Marco; Herber, Andreas B.; Müller, Thomas; Wehner, Birgit; Poulain, Laurent; Tuch, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel-Beer, Martin
    Properties of atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles were characterized during a field experiment at a rural background site (Melpitz, Germany) in February 2017. BC absorption at a wavelength of 870 nm was measured by a photoacoustic extinctiometer, and BC physical properties (BC mass concentration, core size distribution and coating thickness) were measured by a single-particle soot photometer (SP2). Additionally, a catalytic stripper was used to intermittently remove BC coatings by alternating between ambient and thermo-denuded conditions. From these data the mass absorption cross section of BC (MACBC) and its enhancement factor (EMAC) were inferred for essentially waterfree aerosol as present after drying to low relative humidity (RH). Two methods were applied independently to investigate the coating effect on EMAC: A correlation method (MACBC; ambient vs. BC coating thickness) and a denuding method (MACBC; ambient vs. MACBC; denuded). Observed EMAC values varied from 1.0 to 1.6 (lower limit from denuding method) or 1:2 to 1.9 (higher limit from correlation method), with the mean coating volume fraction ranging from 54% to 78% in the dominating mass equivalent BC core diameter range of 200?220 nm.MACBC and EMAC were strongly correlated with coating thickness of BC. By contrast, other potential drivers of EMAC variability, such as different BC sources (air mass origin and absorption Angström exponent), coating composition (ratio of inorganics to organics) and BC core size distribution, had only minor effects. These results for ambient BC measured at Melpitz during winter show that the lensing effect caused by coatings on BC is the main driver of the variations in MACBC and EMAC, while changes in other BC particle properties such as source, BC core size or coating composition play only minor roles at this rural background site with a large fraction of aged particles. Indirect evidence suggests that potential dampening of the lensing effect due to unfavorable morphology was most likely small or even negligible.
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    Absorption instruments inter-comparison campaign at the Arctic Pallas station
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Asmi, Eija; Backman, John; Servomaa, Henri; Virkkula, Aki; Gini, Maria I.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Müller, Thomas; Ohata, Sho; Kondo, Yutaka; Hyvärinen, Antti
    Aerosol light absorption was measured during a 1-month field campaign in June-July 2019 at the Pallas Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in northern Finland. Very low aerosol concentrations prevailed during the campaign, which posed a challenge for the instruments' detection capabilities. The campaign provided a real-world test for different absorption measurement techniques supporting the goals of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Black Carbon (BC) project in developing aerosol absorption standard and reference methods. In this study we compare the results from five filter-based absorption techniques - aethalometer models AE31 and AE33, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) - and from one indirect technique called extinction minus scattering (EMS). The ability of the filter-based techniques was shown to be adequate to measure aerosol light absorption coefficients down to around 0.01g¯Mm-1 levels when data were averaged to 1-2g¯h. The hourly averaged atmospheric absorption measured by the reference MAAP was 0.09g¯Mm-1 (at a wavelength of 637g¯nm). When data were averaged for >1g¯h, the filter-based methods agreed to around 40g¯%. COSMOS systematically measured the lowest absorption coefficient values, which was expected due to the sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS inlet. PSAP showed the best linear correlation with MAAP (slopeCombining double low line0.95, R2Combining double low line0.78), followed by AE31 (slopeCombining double low line0.93). A scattering correction applied to PSAP data improved the data accuracy despite the added noise. However, at very high scattering values the correction led to an underestimation of the absorption. The AE31 data had the highest noise and the correlation with MAAP was the lowest (R2Combining double low line0.65). Statistically the best linear correlations with MAAP were obtained for AE33 and COSMOS (R2 close to 1), but the biases at around the zero values led to slopes clearly below 1. The sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS instrument resulted in the lowest fitted slope. In contrast to the filter-based techniques, the indirect EMS method was not adequate to measure the low absorption values found at the Pallas site. The lowest absorption at which the EMS signal could be distinguished from the noise was >0.1g¯Mm-1 at 1-2g¯h averaging times. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) value measured at a range 0-0.3g¯Mm-1 was calculated using the MAAP and a single particle soot photometer (SP2), resulting in a MAC value of 16.0±5.7g¯m2g-1. Overall, our results demonstrate the challenges encountered in the aerosol absorption measurements in pristine environments and provide some useful guidelines for instrument selection and measurement practices. We highlight the need for a calibrated transfer standard for better inter-comparability of the absorption results. © Author(s) 2021.
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    VAHCOLI, a new concept for lidars: technical setup, science applications, and first measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Lübken, Franz-Josef; Höffner, Josef
    A new concept for a cluster of compact lidar systems named VAHCOLI (Vertical And Horizontal COverage by LIdars) is presented, which allows for the measurement of temperatures, winds, and aerosols in the middle atmosphere (10 110 km) with high temporal and vertical resolution of minutes and some tens of meters, respectively, simultaneously covering horizontal scales from a few hundred meters to several hundred kilometers ( four-dimensional coverage ). The individual lidars ( units ) being used in VAHCOLI are based on a diode-pumped alexandrite laser, which is currently designed to detect potassium (D 770 nm), and on sophisticated laser spectroscopy measuring all relevant frequencies (seeder laser, power laser, backscattered light) with high temporal resolution (2 ms) and high spectral resolution applying Doppler-free spectroscopy. The frequency of the lasers and the narrowband filter in the receiving system are stabilized to typically 10 100 kHz, which is a factor of roughly 105 smaller than the Doppler-broadened Rayleigh signal. Narrowband filtering allows for the measurement of Rayleigh and/or resonance scattering separately from the aerosol (Mie) signal during both night and day. Lidars used for VAHCOLI are compact (volume: 1m3) and multi-purpose systems which employ contemporary electronic, optical, and mechanical components. The units are designed to autonomously operate under harsh field conditions in remote locations. An error analysis with parameters of the anticipated system demonstrates that temperatures and line-of-sight winds can be measured from the lower stratosphere to the upper mesosphere with an accuracy of (0.1 5)K and (0.1 10)ms1, respectively, increasing with altitude. We demonstrate that some crucial dynamical processes in the middle atmosphere, such as gravity waves and stratified turbulence, can be covered by VAHCOLI with sufficient temporal, vertical, and horizontal sampling and resolution. The four-dimensional capabilities of VAHCOLI allow for the performance of time-dependent analysis of the flow field, for example by employing Helmholtz decomposition, and for carrying out statistical tests regarding, for example, intermittency and helicity. The first test measurements under field conditions with a prototype lidar were performed in January 2020. The lidar operated successfully during a 6-week period (night and day) without any adjustment. The observations covered a height range of 5 100 km and demonstrated the capability and applicability of this unit for the VAHCOLI concept.