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    An overview of the Lagrangian experiments undertaken during the North Atlantic regional Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-2)
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Johnson, Doug W.; Osborne, Simon; Wood, Robert; Suhre, Karsten; Johnson, Randy; Businger, Steven; Quinn, Patricia K.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Durkee, Philip A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; O’Dowd, Colin; Noone, Kevin J.; Bandy, Brian; Rudolph, J.; Rapsomanikis, Spyros
    One of the primary aims of the North Atlantic regional Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) was to quantify the physical and chemical processes affecting the evolution of the major aerosol types over the North Atlantic. The best, practical way of doing this is in a Lagrangian framework where a parcel of air is sampled over several tens of hours and its physical and chemical properties are intensively measured. During the intensive observational phase of ACE-2, between 15 June 1997 and 24 July 1997, 3 cloudy Lagrangian experiments and 3 cloud-free, Lagrangian experiments were undertaken between the south west tip of the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. This paper gives an overview of the aims and logistics of all of the Lagrangian experiments and compares and contrasts them to provide a framework for the more focused Lagrangian papers in this issue and future process modelling studies and parametrisation development. The characteristics of the cloudy Lagrangian experiments were remarkably different, enabling a wide range of different physical and chemical processes to be studied. In the 1st Lagrangian, a clean maritime air mass was sampled in which salt particle production, due to increased wind speed, dominated the change in the accumulation mode concentrations. In the 2nd Lagrangian, extensive cloud cover resulted in cloud processing of the aerosol in a polluted air mass, and entrainment of air from the free troposphere influenced the overall decrease in aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Very little change in aerosol characteristics was measured in the 3rd Lagrangian, where the pollution in the MBL was continually being topped up by entraining air from a residual continental boundary layer (CBL) above. From the analysis of all the Lagrangian experiments, it has been possible to formulate, and present here, a generalised description of a European continental outbreak of pollution over the sub-tropical North Atlantic.
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    Size distribution and chemical composition of marine aerosols: A compilation and review
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Heintzenberg, J.; Covert, D.C.; Van Dingenen, R.
    Some 30 years of physical and chemical marine aerosol data are reviewed to derive global-size distribution parameters and inorganic particle composition on a coarse 15°×15° grid. There are large gaps in geographical and seasonal coverage and chemical and physical aerosol characterisation. About 28% of the grid cells contain physical data while there are compositional data in some 60% of the cells. The size distribution data were parametrized in terms of 2 submicrometer log-normal distributions. The sparseness of the data did not allow zonal differentiation of the distributions. By segregating the chemical data according to the major aerosol sources, sea salt, dimethylsulfide, crustal material, combustion processes and other anthropogenic sources, much information on mass concentrations and contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to the marine aerosol can be gleaned from the data base. There are significant meridional differences in the contributions of the different sources to the marine aerosol. Very clearly, we see though that the global marine surface atmosphere is polluted by anthropogenic sulfur. Only in the case of sulfur components did the coverage allow the presentation of very coarse seasonal distributions which reflect the spring blooms in the appropriate parts of the oceans. As an example of the potential value in comparing the marine aerosol data base to chemical transport models, global seasonal meridional MSA distributions were compared to modelled MSA distributions. The general good agreement in mass concentrations is encouraging while some latitudinal discrepancies warrant further investigations covering other aerosol components such as black carbon and metals.
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    Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Freudenthaler, Volker; Esselborn, Michael; Wiegner, Matthias; Heese, Birgit; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Knippertz, Peter; Toledano, Carlos; Gasteiger, Josef; Garhammer, Markus; Seefeldner, Meinhard
    Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio of pure dust clouds were measured during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) at Ouarzazate, Morocco (30.9◦N, –6.9◦E), close to source regions in May–June 2006, with four lidar systems at four wavelengths (355, 532, 710 and 1064 nm). The intercomparison of the lidar systems is accompanied by a discussion of the different calibration methods, including a new, advanced method, and a detailed error analysis. Over the whole SAMUM periode pure dust layers show a mean linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm of 0.31, in the range between 0.27 and 0.35, with a mean Ångström exponent (AE, 440–870 nm) of 0.18 (range 0.04–0.34) and still high mean linear particle depolarization ratio between 0.21 and 0.25 during periods with aerosol optical thickness less than 0.1, with a mean AE of 0.76 (range 0.65–1.00), which represents a negative correlation of the linear particle depolarization ratio with the AE. A slight decrease of the linear particle depolarization ratio with wavelength was found between 532 and 1064 nm from 0.31 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.04.
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    Near-global aerosol mapping in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere with data from the CARIBIC project
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Kapustin, Vladimir; Anderson, Bruce; Thornhill, Kenneth; Van Velthoven, Peter; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl
    This study extrapolates aerosol data of the CARIBIC project from 1997 until June 2008 in along trajectories to compose large-scale maps and vertical profiles of submicrometre particle concentrations in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS). The extrapolation was validated by comparing extrapolated values with CARIBIC data measured near the respective trajectory position and by comparing extrapolated CARIBIC data to measurements by other experiments near the respective trajectory positions. Best agreement between extrapolated and measured data is achieved with particle lifetimes longer than the maximum length of used trajectories. The derived maps reveal regions of strong and frequent new particle formation, namely the Tropical Central and Western Africa with the adjacent Atlantic, South America, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia. These regions of particle formation coincide with those of frequent deep convective clouds. Vertical particle concentration profiles for the troposphere and the stratosphere confirm statistically previous results indicating frequent new particle formation in the tropopause region. There was no statistically significant increase in Aitken mode particle concentration between the first period of CARIBIC operation, 1997–2002, and the second period, 2004–2009. However, a significant increase in concentration occurred within the latter period when considering it in isolation.
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    Doppler lidar studies of heat island effects on vertical mixing of aerosols during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Horn, Stefan; Seifert, Patric; Althausen, Dietrich; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Fruntke, Julia; Lieke, Kirsten; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke
    A wind Doppler lidar was deployed next to three aerosol lidars during the SAMUM–2 campaign on the main island of Cape Verde. The effects of the differential heating of the island and the surrounding ocean and the orographic impact of the capital island Santiago and the small island on its luv side, Maio, are investigated. Horizontal and vertical winds were measured in the disturbed maritime boundary layer and compared to local radiosoundings. Lidar measurements from the research aircraft Falcon and a 3-D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model were used in addition to study the heating effects on the scale of the islands. Indications are found that these effects can widely control the downward mixing from greater heights to the surface of African aerosols, mainly Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke, which were detected in a complex layering over the Cape Verde region.
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    Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Tesche, Matthias; Müller, Detlef; Gross, Silke; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Veira, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas
    Lidar measurements of mixed dust/smoke plumes over the tropical Atlantic ocean were carried out during the winter campaign of SAMUM-2 at Cape Verde. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and Ångstr¨om exponents related to pure biomass-burning aerosol from southern West Africa were extracted from these observations. Furthermore, these findings were used as input for an inversion algorithm to retrieve microphysical properties of pure smoke. Seven measurement days were found suitable for the procedure of aerosol-type separation and successive inversion of optical data that describe biomass-burning smoke. We inferred high smoke lidar ratios of 87 ± 17 sr at 355 nm and 79 ± 17 sr at 532 nm. Smoke lidar ratios and Ångstr¨om exponents are higher compared to the ones for the dust/smoke mixture. These numbers indicate higher absorption and smaller sizes for pure smoke particles compared to the dust/smoke mixture. Inversion of the smoke data set results in mean effective radii of 0.22 ± 0.08 μm with individual results varying between 0.10 and 0.36 μm. The single-scattering albedo for pure biomass-burning smoke was found to vary between 0.63 and 0.89 with a very low mean value of 0.75 ± 0.07. This is in good agreement with findings of airborne in situ measurements which showed values of 0.77 ± 0.03. Effective radii from the inversion were similar to the ones found for the fine mode of the in situ size distributions.
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    A modelling study on the activation of small Aitken-mode aerosol particles during CIME 97
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Gérémy, Guiléne; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.; Schwarzenböck, Alfons; Mertes, Stephan
    During February 1997, one of the 2 observational periods of CIME (cloud ice mountain experiment), a joint field experiment funded by the European Commission, took place on the summit of the Puy de Doˆme in the centre of France. During this experiment the droplet spectra were measured with an FSSP and the aerosol particles in the drops and in the interstitial particle phase were measured with a counterflow virtual impactor and a round jet impactor inside a windtunnel. Very low aerosol particle and drop concentrations were observed and particles as small as 25 nm in diameter were found to activate. Two datasets obtained on 15 February and 17 February were used to study the activation of the small Aitken-mode particles and the spectral form of the droplet spectrum and the scavenging fraction. Numerous sensitivity studies were performed investigating the roˆ le of the number density and chemical composition of the aerosol particles. The roˆ le of mixing inside the orographic cloud was studied by using a new technique. It considers the fact that the air arriving on the summit of the Puy de Doˆme is a mixture of air of different origins. Thus, it weighs the results of a spectral scavenging model (DESCAM or EXMIX) calculated along a number of individual trajectories. The weighing function is derived from tracer and trajectory studies with a 3-dimensional mesoscale model. The model was able to reproduce the activation of aerosol particles as small as 25 nm. It was caused by the low aerosol particle number concentrations. In general, we can conclude that the variability found in the sensitivity tests of the dynamical and chemical factors allows to reproduce the shape of the observed results. As too many free parameters exit at the moment we cannot quantify the contribution of each factor studied to the observed scavenging fraction, however, it seems that dynamics dominates.
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    In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde, Part 2: Parametrization of relative humidity- and wavelength-dependent aerosol optical properties
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Nordmann, Stephan; Tesche, Matthias; Silke Groß, Silke Groß; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gasteiger, Josef; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    An observation-based numerical study of humidity-dependent aerosol optical properties of mixed marine and Saharan mineral dust aerosol is presented. An aerosol model was developed based on measured optical and microphysical properties to describe the marine and Saharan dust aerosol at Cape Verde. A wavelength-dependent optical equivalent imaginary part of the refractive index and a scattering non-sphericity factor for Saharan dustwere derived. Simulations of humidity effects on optical properties by the aerosol model were validated with relative measurements of the extinction coefficient at ambient conditions. Parametrizations were derived to describe the humidity dependence of the extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients as well as the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo. For wavelengths (300–950 nm) and dry dust volume fractions (0–1), aerosol optical properties as a function of relative humidity (RH = 0–90%) can be calculated from tabulated parameters. For instance, at a wavelength of 550 nm, a volume fraction of 0.5 of dust on the total particle volume (dry conditions) and a RH of 90%, the enhancements for the scattering, extinction and absorption coefficients are 2.55, 2.46 and 1.04, respectively, while the enhancements for the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo are 1.11 and 1.04.
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    Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness for desert conditions using MERIS observations during the SAMUM campaign
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Dinter, Tilman; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang; Burrows, John P.; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Bierwirth, Eike; Wendisch, Manfred; Schladitz, Alexander; Wendisch, Manfred; MüLLER, Detlef; Kahn, Ralph; Diouri, Mohammed
    Approximately 30% of the land surface is arid, having desert or semi-desert conditions. Aerosol originating from these regions plays a significant role in climate and atmospheric chemistry of the atmosphere. Retrieving aerosol properties from space-borne platforms above desert conditions, where the surface reflectance is usually very bright, is a challenging task. The proportion of the surface to top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance can reach values over 90%, especially for wavelength above 500 nm. For these reasons detailed knowledge of aerosol and surface optical properties from these regions is required to separate atmosphere from intrinsically bright surfaces. An approach to retrieve aerosol properties over arid and semi-arid regions based on the Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (BAER) has been developed and validated within the Dust Aerosol Retrievals from Space-Born Instruments (DREAMS) Project, which is part of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM, 2006). Combining measurements of the backscattered radiation from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) and ground-based measurements in Morocco in radiation closure experiments yields the aerosol optical properties of mineral dust at selected locations.
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    In situ measurements of optical properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Kaaden, N.; Massling, A.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Deutscher, C.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In situ measurements of optical and physical properties of mineral dust were performed at the outskirts of the Saharan Desert in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment part 1 (SAMUM-1). Goals of the field study were to achieve information on the extent and composition of the dust particle size distribution and the optical properties of dust at the ground. For the particle number size distribution, measured with a DMPS/APS, a size dependent dynamic shape factor was considered. The mean refractive index of the particles in this field study is 1.53–4.1 × 10-3i at 537 nm wavelength and 1.53–3.1 × 10-3i at 637 nm wavelength derived from measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the particle size distribution. Whereas the real part of the refractive index is rather constant, the imaginary part varies depending on the mineral dust concentrations. For high dust concentration the single scattering albedo is primarily influenced by iron oxide and is 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.01 at 537 nm and 637 nm wavelength, respectively. During low dust concentration the single scattering albedo is more influenced by a soot-type absorber and is 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.01 for the same wavelengths.