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    The Earth system model CLIMBER-X v1.0 – Part 1: Climate model description and validation
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Willeit, Matteo; Ganopolski, Andrey; Robinson, Alexander; Edwards, Neil R.
    The newly developed fast Earth system model CLIMBER-X is presented. The climate component of CLIMBER-X consists of a 2.5-D semi-empirical statistical-dynamical atmosphere model, a 3-D frictional-geostrophic ocean model, a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and a land surface model. All the model components are discretized on a regular lat-long grid with a horizontal resolution of 5 ° ×5 °. The model has a throughput of ° ∼ 10 000 simulation years per day on a single node with 16 CPUs on a high-performance computer and is designed to simulate the evolution of the Earth system on temporal scales ranging from decades to >100000 years. A comprehensive evaluation of the model performance for the present day and the historical period shows that CLIMBER-X is capable of realistically reproducing many observed climate characteristics, with results that generally lie within the range of state-of-the-art general circulation models. The analysis of model performance is complemented by a thorough assessment of climate feedbacks and model sensitivities to changes in external forcings and boundary conditions. Limitations and applicability of the model are critically discussed. CLIMBER-X also includes a detailed representation of the global carbon cycle and is coupled to an ice sheet model, which will be described in separate papers. CLIMBER-X is available as open-source code and is expected to be a useful tool for studying past climate changes and for the investigation of the long-term future evolution of the climate.