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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
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    Climate change and potential distribution of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crop cultivation in Pakistan using Maxent
    (Springfield, MO : AIMS Press, 2021) Khalil, Tayyaba; Asad, Saeed A.; Khubaib, Nusaiba; Baig, Ayesha; Atif, Salman; Umar, Muhammad; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Pradhan, Prajal; Baig, Sofia
    The impacts of climate change are projected to become more intense and frequent. One of the indirect impacts of climate change is food insecurity. Agriculture in Pakistan, measured fourth best in the world, is already experiencing visible adverse impacts of climate change. Among many other food sources, potato crop remains one of the food security crops for developing nations. Potatoes are widely cultivated in Pakistan. To assess the impact of climate change on potato crop in Pakistan, it is imperative to analyze its distribution under future climate change scenarios using Species Distribution Models (SDMs). Maximum Entropy Model is used in this study to predict the spatial distribution of Potato in 2070 using two CMIP5 models for two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). 19 Bioclimatic variables are incorporated along with other contributing variables like soil type, elevation and irrigation. The results indicate slight decrease in the suitable area for potato growth in RCP 4.5 and drastic decrease in suitable area in RCP 8.5 for both models. The performance evaluation of the model is based on AUC. AUC value of 0.85 suggests the fitness of the model and thus, it is applicable to predict the suitable climate for potato production in Pakistan. Sustainable potato cultivation is needed to increase productivity in developing countries while promoting better resource management and optimization.
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    CUDe — Carbon utilization degree as an indicator for sustainable biomass use
    (Basel : MDPI, 2016) Anja Hansen, Anja Hansen; Budde, Jörn; Karatay, Yusuf Nadi; Prochnow, Annette
    Carbon (C) is a central element in organic compounds and is an indispensable resource for life. It is also an essential production factor in bio-based economies, where biomass serves many purposes, including energy generation and material production. Biomass conversion is a common case of transformation between different carbon-containing compounds. At each transformation step, C might be lost. To optimize the C use, the C flows from raw materials to end products must be understood. The estimation of how much of the initial C in the feedstock remains in consumable products and delivers services provides an indication of the C use efficiency. We define this concept as Carbon Utilization Degree (CUDe) and apply it to two biomass uses: biogas production and hemp insulation. CUDe increases when conversion processes are optimized, i.e., residues are harnessed and/or losses are minimized. We propose CUDe as a complementary approach for policy design to assess C as an asset for bio-based production. This may lead to a paradigm shift to see C as a resource that requires sustainable exploitation. It could complement the existing methods that focus solely on the climate impact of carbon.
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    Profitability of management systems on German fenlands
    (Basel : MDPI, 2016) Rebhann, Marco; Karatay, Yusuf Nadi; Filler, Günther; Prochnow, Annette
    Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions). To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.
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    Perspectives from CO+RE: How COVID-19 changed our food systems and food security paradigms
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2020) Bakalis, Serafim; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Ahrne, Lilia; Chen, Jianshe; Cullen, P.J.; Cummins, Enda; Datta, Ashim K.; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Foster, Tim; Fryer, Peter J.; Gouseti, Ourania; Hospido, Almudena; Knoerzer, Kai; LeBail, Alain; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Rao, Pingfan; Schlüter, Oliver K.; Taoukis, Petros; Xanthakis, Epameinondas; Van Impe, Jan F.M.
    [no abstract available]
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    Role of biogas and biochar palm oil residues for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biodiesel production
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2015) Harsono, Soni Sisbudi; Grundmann, Philipp; Siahaanc, Donald
    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which related to palm oil production are tend to increase due to the increasing of palm oil demand and the expansion process of oil palm production worldwide. The specific objective of the study was to assess the contribution of innovative biomass processes as effort to improve the energy balance and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with biodiesel made from palm oil. The GHG was calculated that GHG emission savings up to 63.14% in total. GHG emissions from biochar using empty fruit bunches (EFB) resulted to 2.95% from total GHG emissions, and biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced 74.22% of the total GHG emissions from palm oil based biodiesel production. Innovative technologies and processes for the treatment of by-products can contribute significantly for meeting the emission targets. Build upon the research, resulted to the recommendation to use biochar and capturing methane from POME. The research result was also concerned that emission savings are annulled in the case of land use change (LUC) and oil palm production on peatland. Based on this research resulted to recommended that the utilization of waste from oil palm cultivation on peatland which was disuse and the capturing of methane from POME