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- ItemFormation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: Evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2013) Zhang, Q.J.; Beekmann, M.; Drewnick, F.; Freutel, F.; Schneider, J.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Baltensperger, U.; Poulain, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; Sciare, J.; Gros, V.; Borbon, A.; Colomb, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Haeffelin, M.; Dupont, J.-C.; Siour, G.; Petetin, H.; Bessagnet, B.; Pandis, S.N.; Hodzic, A.; Sanchez, O.; Honoré, C.; Perrussel, O.Simulations with the chemistry transport model CHIMERE are compared to measurements performed during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer campaign in the Greater Paris region in July 2009. The volatility-basis-set approach (VBS) is implemented into this model, taking into account the volatility of primary organic aerosol (POA) and the chemical aging of semi-volatile organic species. Organic aerosol is the main focus and is simulated with three different configurations with a modified treatment of POA volatility and modified secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation schemes. In addition, two types of emission inventories are used as model input in order to test the uncertainty related to the emissions. Predictions of basic meteorological parameters and primary and secondary pollutant concentrations are evaluated, and four pollution regimes are defined according to the air mass origin. Primary pollutants are generally overestimated, while ozone is consistent with observations. Sulfate is generally overestimated, while ammonium and nitrate levels are well simulated with the refined emission data set. As expected, the simulation with non-volatile POA and a single-step SOA formation mechanism largely overestimates POA and underestimates SOA. Simulation of organic aerosol with the VBS approach taking into account the aging of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) shows the best correlation with measurements. High-concentration events observed mostly after long-range transport are well reproduced by the model. Depending on the emission inventory used, simulated POA levels are either reasonable or underestimated, while SOA levels tend to be overestimated. Several uncertainties related to the VBS scheme (POA volatility, SOA yields, the aging parameterization), to emission input data, and to simulated OH levels can be responsible for this behavior. Despite these uncertainties, the implementation of the VBS scheme into the CHIMERE model allowed for much more realistic organic aerosol simulations for Paris during summertime. The advection of SOA from outside Paris is mostly responsible for the highest OA concentration levels. During advection of polluted air masses from northeast (Benelux and Central Europe), simulations indicate high levels of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA fractions, while biogenic SOA dominates during periods with advection from Southern France and Spain.
- ItemLong-term behavior of the concentration of the minor constituents in the mesosphere-a model study(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2009) Grygalashvyly, M.; Sonnemann, G.R.; Hartogh, P.We investigate the influence the rising concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide which have occurred since the pre-industrial era, have had on the chemistry of the mesosphere. For this investigation we use our global 3-D-model COMMA-IAP which was designed for the exploration of the MLT-region and in particular the extended mesopause region. Assumptions and approximations for the trends in the Lyman-flux (needed for the water vapor dissociation rate), methane and the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause are necessary to accomplish this study. To approximate the solar Lyman-α flux back to the pre-industrial time, we derived a quadratic fit using the sunspot number record which extends back to 1749 and is the only solar proxy available for the Lyman-α flux prior to 1947. We assume that methane increases with a constant growth rate from the pre-industrial era to the present. An unsolved problem for the model calculations consists of how the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause should be specified during this period. We assume that the hygropause was dryer during pre-industrial times than the present. As a consequence of methane oxidation, the model simulation indicates that the middle atmosphere has become more humid as a result of the rising methane concentration, but with some dependence on height and with a small time delay of few years. The solar influence on the water vapor mixing ratio is insignificant below about 80 km in summer high latitudes, but becomes increasingly more important above this altitude. The enhanced water vapor concentration increasesthe hydrogen radical concentration and reduces the mesospheric ozone. A second region of stronger ozone decrease is located in the vicinity of the stratopause. Increases in CO2 concentration enhance slightly the concentration of CO in the mesosphere. However, its influence upon the chemistry is small and its main effect is connected with a cooling of the upper atmosphere. The long-term behavior of water vapor is discussed in particular with respect to its impact on the NLC region.
- ItemThe HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2011) Jones, C.D.; Hughes, J.K.; Bellouin, N.; Hardiman, S.C.; Jones, G.S.; Knight, J.; Liddicoat, S.; O'Connor, F.M.; Andres, R.J.; Bell, C.; Boo, K.-O.; Bozzo, A.; Butchart, N.; Cadule, P.; Corbin, K.D.; Doutriaux-Boucher, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gornall, J.; Gray, L.; Halloran, P.R.; Hurtt, G.; Ingram, W.J.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Law, R.M.; Meinshausen, M.; Osprey, S.; Palin, E.J.; Parsons, Chini, L.; Raddatz, T.; Sanderson, M.G.; Sellar, A.A.; Schurer, A.; Valdes, P.; Wood, N.; Woodward, S.; Yoshioka, M.; Zerroukat, M.The scientific understanding of the Earth's climate system, including thecentral question of how the climate system is likely to respond tohuman-induced perturbations, is comprehensively captured in GCMs and EarthSystem Models (ESM). Diagnosing the simulated climate response, andcomparing responses across different models, is crucially dependent ontransparent assumptions of how the GCM/ESM has been driven - especiallybecause the implementation can involve subjective decisions and may differbetween modelling groups performing the same experiment. This paper outlinesthe climate forcings and setup of the Met Office Hadley Centre ESM, HadGEM2-ES for the CMIP5 set of centennial experiments. We document theprescribed greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol precursors, stratosphericand tropospheric ozone assumptions, as well as implementation of land-usechange and natural forcings for the HadGEM2-ES historical and futureexperiments following the Representative Concentration Pathways. Inaddition, we provide details of how HadGEM2-ES ensemble members wereinitialised from the control run and how the palaeoclimate and AMIPexperiments, as well as the "emission-driven" RCP experiments wereperformed.
- ItemEffective CO2 lifetime and future CO2 levels based on fit function(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2013) Sonnemann, G.R.; Grygalashvyly, M.The estimated global CO2 emission rates and the measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations show that only a certain share of the emitted CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere. For given atmospheric emissions of CO2, the effective lifetime determines its accumulation in the atmosphere and, consequently, its impact on the future global warming. We found that on average the inferred effective lifetime of CO2 decreases as its atmospheric concentration increases, reducing the rate of its accumulation in the atmosphere. We derived a power function that fits the varying lifetimes. Based on this fitting function, we calculated the increase of CO2 for different scenarios of future global emission rates.
- ItemGlobal annual methane emission rate derived from its current atmospheric mixing ratio and estimated lifetime(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2014) Sonnemann, G.R.; Grygalashvyly, M.We use the estimated lifetime of methane (CH4), the current methane concentration, and its annual growth rate to calculate the global methane emission rate. The upper and lower limits of the annual global methane emission rate, depending on loss of CH4 into the stratosphere and methane consuming bacteria, amounts to 648.0 Mt a-1 and 608.0 Mt a-1. These values are in reasonable agreement with satellite and with much more accurate in situ measurements of methane. We estimate a mean tropospheric and mass-weighted temperature related to the reaction rate and employ a mean OH-concentration to calculate a mean methane lifetime. The estimated atmospheric lifetime of methane amounts to 8.28 years and 8.84 years, respectively. In order to improve the analysis a realistic 3D-calculations should be performed.