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Now showing 1 - 10 of 118
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    Optical properties of long-range transported Saharan dust over Barbados as measured by dual-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Schepanski, K.; Toledano, C.; Schäfler, A.; Ansmann, A.; Weinzierl, B.
    Dual-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar observations were performed during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud interaction Experiment in Barbados in June and July 2013 to characterize the optical properties and vertical distribution of long-range transported Saharan dust after transport across the Atlantic Ocean. Four major dust events were studied during the measurements from 15 June to 13 July 2013 with aerosol optical depths at 532 nm of up to 0.6. The vertical aerosol distribution was characterized by a three-layer structure consisting of the boundary layer, the entrainment or mixing layer and the pure Saharan dust layer. The upper boundary of the pure dust layer reached up to 4.5 km in height. The contribution of the pure dust layer was about half of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The total dust contribution was about 50–70 % of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The lidar ratio within the pure dust layer was found to be wavelength independent with mean values of 53 ± 5 sr at 355 nm and 56 ± 7 sr at 532 nm. For the particle linear depolarization ratio, wavelength-independent mean values of 0.26 ± 0.03 at 355 nm and 0.27 ± 0.01 at 532 nm have been found.
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    3+2 + X : what is the most useful depolarization input for retrieving microphysical properties of non-spherical particles from lidar measurements using the spheroid model of Dubovik et al. (2006)?
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Tesche, Matthias; Kolgotin, Alexei; Haarig, Moritz; Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Müller, Detlef
    The typical multiwavelength aerosol lidar data set for inversion of optical to microphysical parameters is composed of three backscatter coefficients (β) at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and two extinction coefficients (α) at 355 and 532 nm. This data combination is referred to as a 3β C 2α or 3 + 2 data set. This set of data is sufficient for retrieving some important microphysical particle parameters if the particles have spherical shape. Here, we investigate the effect of including the particle linear depolarization ratio (δ) as a third input parameter for the inversion of lidar data. The inversion algorithm is generally not used if measurements show values of d that exceed 0.10 at 532 nm, i.e. in the presence of nonspherical particles such as desert dust, volcanic ash, and, under special circumstances, biomass-burning smoke. We use experimental data collected with instruments that are capable of measuring d at all three lidar wavelengths with an inversion routine that applies the spheroidal light-scattering model of Dubovik et al. (2006) with a fixed axis-ratio distribution to replicate scattering properties of non-spherical particles. The inversion gives the fraction of spheroids required to replicate the optical data as an additional output parameter. This is the first systematic test of the effect of using all theoretically possible combinations of d taken at 355, 532, and 1064 nm as input in the lidar data inversion. We find that depolarization information of at least one wavelength already provides useful information for the inversion of optical data that have been collected in the presence of non-spherical mineral dust particles. However, any choice of d will give lower values of the single-scattering albedo than the traditional 3 + 2 data set. We find that input data sets that include d355 give a spheroid fraction that closely resembles the dust ratio we obtain from using β532 and d532 in a methodology applied in aerosol-type separation. The use of d355 in data sets of two or three d? reduces the spheroid fraction that is retrieved when using d532 and d1064. Use of the latter two parameters without accounting for d355 generally leads to high spheroid fractions that we consider not trustworthy. The use of three d instead of two δ, including the constraint that one of these is measured at 355 nm does not provide any advantage over using 3 + 2 + d355 for the observations with varying contributions of mineral dust considered here. However, additional measurements at wavelengths different from 355 nm would be desirable for application to a wider range of aerosol scenarios that may include non-spherical smoke particles, which can have values of d355 that are indistinguishable from those found for mineral dust. We therefore conclude that - depending on measurement capability - the future standard input for inversion of lidar data taken in the presence of mineral dust particles and using the spheroid model of Dubovik et al. (2006) might be 3+2Cδ355 or 3 + 2 + δ355 + δ532. © 2019 The Author(s).
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    Strong aerosol-cloud interaction in altocumulus during updraft periods: Lidar observations over central Europe
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Schmidt, J.; Ansmann, A.; Bühl, J.; Wandinger, U.
    For the first time, a liquid-water cloud study of the aerosol–cloud-dynamics relationship, solely based on lidar, was conducted. Twenty-nine cases of pure liquid-water altocumulus layers were observed with a novel dual-field-of-view Raman lidar over the polluted central European site of Leipzig, Germany, between September 2010 and September 2012. By means of the novel Raman lidar technique, cloud properties such as the droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) in the lower part of altocumulus layers are obtained. The conventional aerosol Raman lidar technique provides the aerosol extinction coefficient (used as aerosol proxy) below cloud base. A collocated Doppler lidar measures the vertical velocity at cloud base and thus updraft and downdraft occurrence. Here, we present the key results of our statistical analysis of the 2010–2012 observations. Besides a clear aerosol effect on cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of the altocumulus layers during updraft periods, turbulent mixing and entrainment of dry air is assumed to be the main reason for the found weak correlation between aerosol proxy and CDNC higher up in the cloud. The corresponding aerosol–cloud interaction parameter based on changes in cloud droplet number concentration with aerosol loading was found to be close to 0.8 at 30–70 m above cloud base during updraft periods and below 0.4 when ignoring vertical-wind information in the analysis. Our findings are extensively compared with literature values and agree well with airborne observations.
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    Identifying cloud droplets beyond lidar attenuation from vertically pointing cloud radar observations using artificial neural networks
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Schimmel, Willi; Kalesse-Los, Heike; Maahn, Maximilian; Vogl, Teresa; Foth, Andreas; Garfias, Pablo Saavedra; Seifert, Patric
    In mixed-phase clouds, the variable mass ratio between liquid water and ice as well as the spatial distribution within the cloud plays an important role in cloud lifetime, precipitation processes, and the radiation budget. Data sets of vertically pointing Doppler cloud radars and lidars provide insights into cloud properties at high temporal and spatial resolution. Cloud radars are able to penetrate multiple liquid layers and can potentially be used to expand the identification of cloud phase to the entire vertical column beyond the lidar signal attenuation height, by exploiting morphological features in cloud radar Doppler spectra that relate to the existence of supercooled liquid. We present VOODOO (reVealing supercOOled liquiD beyOnd lidar attenuatiOn), a retrieval based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) mapping radar Doppler spectra to the probability of the presence of cloud droplets (CD). The training of the CNN was realized using the Cloudnet processing suite as supervisor. Once trained, VOODOO yields the probability for CD directly at Cloudnet grid resolution. Long-term predictions of 18 months in total from two mid-latitudinal locations, i.e., Punta Arenas, Chile (53.1 S, 70.9 W), in the Southern Hemisphere and Leipzig, Germany (51.3 N, 12.4 E), in the Northern Hemisphere, are evaluated. Temporal and spatial agreement in cloud-droplet-bearing pixels is found for the Cloudnet classification to the VOODOO prediction. Two suitable case studies were selected, where stratiform, multi-layer, and deep mixed-phase clouds were observed. Performance analysis of VOODOO via classification-evaluating metrics reveals precision > 0.7, recall ≈ 0.7, and accuracy ≈ 0.8. Additionally, independent measurements of liquid water path (LWP) retrieved by a collocated microwave radiometer (MWR) are correlated to the adiabatic LWP, which is estimated using the temporal and spatial locations of cloud droplets from VOODOO and Cloudnet in connection with a cloud parcel model. This comparison resulted in stronger correlation for VOODOO (≈ 0.45) compared to Cloudnet (≈ 0.22) and indicates the availability of VOODOO to identify CD beyond lidar attenuation. Furthermore, the long-term statistics for 18 months of observations are presented, analyzing the performance as a function of MWR-LWP and confirming VOODOO's ability to identify cloud droplets reliably for clouds with LWP > 100 g m-2. The influence of turbulence on the predictive performance of VOODOO was also analyzed and found to be minor. A synergy of the novel approach VOODOO and Cloudnet would complement each other perfectly and is planned to be incorporated into the Cloudnet algorithm chain in the near future.
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    Assessment of lidar depolarization uncertainty by means of a polarimetric lidar simulator
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Belegante, Livio; Freudenthaler, Volker; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Nicolae, Doina; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Amodeo, Aldo; D'Amico, Giusseppe; Engelmann, Ronny; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Kokkalis, Panos; Mamouri, Rodanthy; Papayannis, Alex; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Olmo, Francisco José; Wandinger, Ulla; Amato, Francesco; Haeffelin, Martial
    Lidar depolarization measurements distinguish between spherical and non-spherical aerosol particles based on the change of the polarization state between the emitted and received signal. The particle shape information in combination with other aerosol optical properties allows the characterization of different aerosol types and the retrieval of aerosol particle microphysical properties. Regarding the microphysical inversions, the lidar depolarization technique is becoming a key method since particle shape information can be used by algorithms based on spheres and spheroids, optimizing the retrieval procedure. Thus, the identification of the depolarization error sources and the quantification of their effects are crucial. This work presents a new tool to assess the systematic error of the volume linear depolarization ratio (δ), combining the Stokes–Müller formalism and the complete sampling of the error space using the lidar model presented in Freudenthaler (2016a). This tool is applied to a synthetic lidar system and to several EARLINET lidars with depolarization capabilities at 355 or 532 nm. The lidar systems show relative errors of δ larger than 100 % for δ values around molecular linear depolarization ratios (∼ 0.004 and up to ∼  10 % for δ = 0.45). However, one system shows only relative errors of 25 and 0.22 % for δ = 0.004 and δ = 0.45, respectively, and gives an example of how a proper identification and reduction of the main error sources can drastically reduce the systematic errors of δ. In this regard, we provide some indications of how to reduce the systematic errors.
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    EARLINET instrument intercomparison campaigns: Overview on strategy and results
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Wandinger, Ulla; Freudenthaler, Volker; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Engelmann, Ronny; Mattis, Ina; Groß, Silke; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Giunta, Aldo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Osipenko, Fiodor; Slesar, Alexander; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Serikov, Ilya; Linné, Holger; Jansen, Friedhelm; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; de Graaf, Martin; Trickl, Thomas; Giehl, Helmut; Adam, Mariana; Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sicard, Michaël; Tomás, Sergio; Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Pujadas, Manuel; Molero, Francisco; Fernández, Alfonso J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Gausa, Michael; Grigorov, Ivan; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenco; Spinelli, Nicola; Boselli, Antonella; Wang, Xuan; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Perrone, Maria Rita; De Tomas, Ferdinando; Burlizzi, Pasquale
    This paper introduces the recent European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) quality-assurance efforts at instrument level. Within two dedicated campaigns and five single-site intercomparison activities, 21 EARLINET systems from 18 EARLINET stations were intercompared between 2009 and 2013. A comprehensive strategy for campaign setup and data evaluation has been established. Eleven systems from nine EARLINET stations participated in the EARLINET Lidar Intercomparison 2009 (EARLI09). In this campaign, three reference systems were qualified which served as traveling standards thereafter. EARLINET systems from nine other stations have been compared against these reference systems since 2009. We present and discuss comparisons at signal and at product level from all campaigns for more than 100 individual measurement channels at the wavelengths of 355, 387, 532, and 607 nm. It is shown that in most cases, a very good agreement of the compared systems with the respective reference is obtained. Mean signal deviations in predefined height ranges are typically below ±2 %. Particle backscatter and extinction coefficients agree within ±2  ×  10−4 km−1 sr−1 and ± 0.01 km−1, respectively, in most cases. For systems or channels that showed larger discrepancies, an in-depth analysis of deficiencies was performed and technical solutions and upgrades were proposed and realized. The intercomparisons have reinforced confidence in the EARLINET data quality and allowed us to draw conclusions on necessary system improvements for some instruments and to identify major challenges that need to be tackled in the future.
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    EARLINET Single Calculus Chain – technical – Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.
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    EARLINET Single Calculus Chain – technical – Part 2: Calculation of optical products
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Mattis, Ina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Iarlori, Marco
    In this paper we present the automated software tool ELDA (EARLINET Lidar Data Analyzer) for the retrieval of profiles of optical particle properties from lidar signals. This tool is one of the calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) which allows for the analysis of the data of many different lidar systems of EARLINET in an automated, unsupervised way. ELDA delivers profiles of particle extinction coefficients from Raman signals as well as profiles of particle backscatter coefficients from combinations of Raman and elastic signals or from elastic signals only. Those analyses start from pre-processed signals which have already been corrected for background, range dependency and hardware specific effects. An expert group reviewed all algorithms and solutions for critical calculus subsystems which are used within EARLINET with respect to their applicability for automated retrievals. Those methods have been implemented in ELDA. Since the software was designed in a modular way, it is possible to add new or alternative methods in future. Most of the implemented algorithms are well known and well documented, but some methods have especially been developed for ELDA, e.g., automated vertical smoothing and temporal averaging or the handling of effective vertical resolution in the case of lidar ratio retrievals, or the merging of near-range and far-range products. The accuracy of the retrieved profiles was tested following the procedure of the EARLINET-ASOS algorithm inter-comparison exercise which is based on the analysis of synthetic signals. Mean deviations, mean relative deviations, and normalized root-mean-square deviations were calculated for all possible products and three height layers. In all cases, the deviations were clearly below the maximum allowed values according to the EARLINET quality requirements. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.
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    Observations of turbulence-induced new particle formation in the residual layer
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2010) Wehner, B.; Siebert, H.; Ansmann, A.; Ditas, F.; Seifert, P.; Stratmann, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Apituley, A.; Shaw, R.A.; Manninen, H.E.; Kulmala, M.
    Aerosol particle measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer performed by a helicopter-borne measurement payload and by a lidar system from a case study during the IMPACT field campaign in Cabauw (NL) are presented. Layers of increased number concentrations of ultrafine particles were observed in the residual layer, indicating relatively recent new-particle formation. These layers were characterized by a sub-critical Richardson number and concomitant increased turbulence. Turbulent mixing is likely to lead to local supersaturation of possible precursor gases which are essential for new particle formation. Observed peaks in the number concentrations of ultrafine particles at ground level are connected to the new particle formation in the residual layer by boundary layer development and vertical mixing.
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    Simultaneous and co-located wind measurements in the middle atmosphere by lidar and rocket-borne techniques
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Lübken, Franz-Josef; Baumgarten, Gerd; Hildebrand, Jens; Schmidlin, Francis J.
    We present the first comparison of a new lidar technique to measure winds in the middle atmosphere, called DoRIS (Doppler Rayleigh Iodine Spectrometer), with a rocket-borne in situ method, which relies on measuring the horizontal drift of a target (“starute”) by a tracking radar. The launches took place from the Andøya Space Center (ASC), very close to the ALOMAR observatory (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research) at 69° N. DoRIS is part of a steerable twin lidar system installed at ALOMAR. The observations were made simultaneously and with a horizontal distance between the two lidar beams and the starute trajectories of typically 0–40 km only. DoRIS measured winds from 14 March 2015, 17:00 UTC, to 15 March 2015, 11:30 UTC. A total of eight starute flights were launched successfully from 14 March, 19:00 UTC, to 15 March, 00:19 UTC. In general there is excellent agreement between DoRIS and the in situ measurements, considering the combined range of uncertainties. This concerns not only the general height structures of zonal and meridional winds and their temporal developments, but also some wavy structures. Considering the comparison between all starute flights and all DoRIS observations in a time period of ±20 min around each individual starute flight, we arrive at mean differences of typically ±5–10 m s−1 for both wind components. Part of the remaining differences are most likely due to the detection of different wave fronts of gravity waves. There is no systematic difference between DoRIS and the in situ observations above 30 km. Below ∼ 30 km, winds from DoRIS are systematically too large by up to 10–20 m s−1, which can be explained by the presence of aerosols. This is proven by deriving the backscatter ratios at two different wavelengths. These ratios are larger than unity, which is an indication of the presence of aerosols.