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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    The impact of aerosol hygroscopic growth on the single-scattering albedo and its application on the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Tao, J.C.; Zhao, C.S.; Ma, N.; Liu, P.F.
    Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles can significantly affect their single-scattering albedo (ω), and consequently alters the aerosol effect on tropospheric photochemistry. In this study, the impact of aerosol hygroscopic growth on ω and its application to the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient (JNO2) are investigated for a typical aerosol particle population in the North China Plain (NCP). The variations of aerosol optical properties with relative humidity (RH) are calculated using a Mie theory aerosol optical model, on the basis of field measurements of number–size distribution and hygroscopic growth factor (at RH values above 90%) from the 2009 HaChi (Haze in China) project. Results demonstrate that ambient ω has pronouncedly different diurnal patterns from ω measured at dry state, and is highly sensitive to the ambient RHs. Ambient ω in the NCP can be described by a dry state ω value of 0.863, increasing with the RH following a characteristic RH dependence curve. A Monte Carlo simulation shows that the uncertainty of ω from the propagation of uncertainties in the input parameters decreases from 0.03 (at dry state) to 0.015 (RHs > 90%). The impact of hygroscopic growth on ω is further applied in the calculation of the radiative transfer process. Hygroscopic growth of the studied aerosol particle population generally inhibits the photolysis of NO2 at the ground level, whereas accelerates it above the moist planetary boundary layer. Compared with dry state, the calculated JNO2 at RH of 98% at the height of 1 km increases by 30.4%, because of the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation by the humidified scattering-dominant aerosol particles. The increase of JNO2 due to the aerosol hygroscopic growth above the upper boundary layer may affect the tropospheric photochemical processes and this needs to be taken into account in the atmospheric chemical models.
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    A parameterization of low visibilities for hazy days in the North China Plain
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Chen, J.; Zhao, C.S.; Ma, N.; Liu, P.F.; Göbel, T.; Hallbauer, E.; Deng, Z.Z.; Ran, L.; Xu, W.Y.; Liang, Z.; Liu, H.J.; Yan, P.; Zhou, X.J.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Visibility degradation is a pervasive and urgent environmental problem in China. The occurrence of low visibility events is frequent in the North China Plain, where the aerosol loading is quite high and aerosols are strongly hygroscopic. A parameterization of light extinction (Kex) for low visibilities on hazy days is proposed in this paper, based on visibility, relative humidity (RH), aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and particle number size distributions measured during the Haze in China (HaChi) Project. Observational results show that a high aerosol volume concentration is responsible for low visibility at RH <90%; while for RH >90%, decrease of visibility is mainly influenced by the increase of RH. The parameterization of Kex is developed on the basis of aerosol volume concentrations and RH, taking into accounts the sensitivity of visibility to the two factors and the availability of corresponding data. The extinction coefficients calculated with the parameterization schemes agree well with the directly measured values.
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    A new method to determine the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous using the measured aerosol optical properties and number size distributions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Ma, N.; Zhao, C.S.; Müller, T.; Cheng, Y.F.; Liu, P.F.; Deng, Z.Z.; Xu, W.Y.; Ran, L.; Nekat, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Herrmann, H.; Yan, P.; Zhou, X.J.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In this paper, the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) was investigated with a two-parameter aerosol optical model and in situ aerosol measurements at a regional site in the North China Plain (NCP). A closure study between the hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF) measured by an integrating nephelometer and that calculated with a modified Mie model was conducted. A new method was proposed to retrieve the ratio of the externally mixed LAC mass to the total mass of LAC (rext-LAC) based on the assumption that the ambient aerosol particles were externally mixed and consisted of a pure LAC material and a core-shell morphology in which the core is LAC and the shell is a less absorbing material. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to estimate the overall influences of input parameters of the algorithm to the retrieved rext-LAC. The diurnal variation of rext-LAC was analyzed and the PartMC-MOSAIC model was used to simulate the variation of the aerosol mixing state. Results show that, for internally mixed particles, the assumption of core-shell mixture is more appropriate than that of homogenous mixture which has been widely used in aerosol optical calculations. A significant diurnal pattern of the retrieved rext-LAC was found, with high values during the daytime and low values at night. The consistency between the retrieved rext-LAC and the model results indicates that the diurnal variation of LAC mixing state is mainly caused by the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer.
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    Aerosol hygroscopicity parameter derived from the light scattering enhancement factor measurements in the North China Plain
    (Göttingen : Copernicus, 2014) Chen, J.; Zhao, C.S.; Ma, N.; Yan, P.
    The relative humidity (RH) dependence of aerosol light scattering is an essential parameter for accurate estimation of the direct radiative forcing induced by aerosol particles. Because of insufficient information on aerosol hygroscopicity in climate models, a more detailed parameterization of hygroscopic growth factors and resulting optical properties with respect to location, time, sources, aerosol chemistry and meteorology are urgently required. In this paper, a retrieval method to calculate the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, κ, is proposed based on the in situ measured aerosol light scattering enhancement factor, namely f(RH), and particle number size distribution (PNSD) obtained from the HaChi (Haze in China) campaign. Measurements show that f(RH) increases sharply with increasing RH, and that the time variance of f(RH) is much greater at higher RH. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the f(RH) is more sensitive to the aerosol hygroscopicity than PNSD. f(RH) for polluted cases is distinctly higher than that for clean periods at a specific RH. The derived equivalent κ, combined with the PNSD measurements, is applied in the prediction of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration. The predicted CCN number concentration with the derived equivalent κ agrees well with the measured ones, especially at high supersaturations. The proposed calculation algorithm of κ with the f(RH) measurements is demonstrated to be reasonable and can be widely applied.
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    Variability of black carbon mass concentrations, sub-micrometer particle number concentrations and size distributions: results of the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network ranging from city street to High Alpine locations
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2018) Sun, J.; Birmili, W.; Hermann, M.; Tuch, T.; Weinhold, K.; Spindler, G.; Schladitz, A.; Bastian, S.; Löschau, G.; Cyrys, J.; Gu, J.; Flentje, H.; Briel, B.; Asbac, C.; Kaminski, H.; Ries, L.; Sohme, R.; Gerwig, H.; Wirtz, K.; Meinhardt, F.; Schwerin, A.; Bath, O.; Ma, N.; Wiedensohler, A.
    This work reports the first statistical analysis of multi-annual data on tropospheric aerosols from the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN). Compared to other networks worldwide, GUAN with 17 measurement locations has the most sites equipped with particle number size distribution (PNSD) and equivalent black carbon (eBC) instruments and the most site categories in Germany ranging from city street/roadside to High Alpine. As we know, the variations of eBC and particle number concentration (PNC) are influenced by several factors such as source, transformation, transport and deposition. The dominant controlling factor for different pollutant parameters might be varied, leading to the different spatio-temporal variations among the measured parameters. Currently, a study of spatio-temporal variations of PNSD and eBC considering the influences of both site categories and spatial scale is still missing. Based on the multi-site dataset of GUAN, the goal of this study is to investigate how pollutant parameters may interfere with spatial characteristics and site categories. © 2019 The Authors
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    A study of aerosol liquid water content based on hygroscopicity measurements at high relative humidity in the North China Plain
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Bian, Y.X.; Zhao, C.S.; Ma, N.; Chen, J.; Xu, W.Y.
    Water can be a major component of aerosol particles, also serving as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions. In this study, a novel method is presented to calculate the aerosol liquid water content at high relative humidity based on measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, particle number size distribution and relative humidity in the Haze in China (HaChi) summer field campaign (July–August 2009) in the North China Plain. The aerosol liquid water content calculated using this method agreed well with that calculated using a thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA II) at high relative humidity (>60%) with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. At low relative humidity (<60%), an underestimation was found in the calculated aerosol liquid water content by the thermodynamic equilibrium model. This discrepancy mainly resulted from the ISORROPIA II model, which only considered limited aerosol chemical compositions. The mean and maximum values of aerosol liquid water content during the HaChi campaign reached 1.69 × 10−4 g m−3 and 9.71 × 10−4 g m−3, respectively. A distinct diurnal variation of the aerosol liquid water content was found, with lower values during daytime and higher ones at night. The aerosol liquid water content depended strongly on the relative humidity. The aerosol liquid water content in the accumulation mode dominated the total aerosol liquid water content.
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    Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China Plain
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Deng, Z.Z.; Zhao, C.S.; Ma, N.; Liu, P.F.; Ran, L.; Xu, W.Y.; Chen, J.; Liang, Z.; Liang, S.; Huang, M.Y.; Ma, X.C.; Zhang, Q.; Quan, J.N.; Yan, P.; Henning, S.; Mildenberger, K.; Sommerhage, E.; Schäfer, M.; Stratmann, F.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols were measured at a regional/suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP), which is occasionally heavily polluted by anthropogenic aerosol particles and gases. A Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration (NCCN) and calculated CCN number concentration based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties. The observed CCN number concentration (NCCN-obs) are higher than those observed in other locations than China, with average NCCN-obs of roughly 2000, 3000, 6000, 10 000 and 13 000 cm−3 at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.70%, respectively. An inferred critical dry diameter (Dm) is calculated based on the NCCN-obs and aerosol number size distribution assuming homogeneous chemical composition. The inferred cut-off diameters are in the ranges of 190–280, 160–260, 95–180, 65–120 and 50–100 nm at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.7%, with their mean values 230.1, 198.4, 128.4, 86.4 and 69.2 nm, respectively. Size-resolved activation measurements show that most of the 300 nm particles are activated at the investigated supersaturations, while almost no particles of 30 nm are activated even at the highest supersaturation of 0.72%. The activation ratio increases with increasing supersaturation and particle size. The slopes of the activation curves for ambient aerosols are not as steep as those observed in calibrations with ammonium sulfate suggesting that the observed aerosols is an external mixture of more hygroscopic and hydrophobic particles. The calculated CCN number concentrations (NCCN-calc) based on the size-resolved activation ratio and aerosol number size distribution correlate well with the NCCN-obs, and show an average overestimation of 19%. Sensitivity studies of the CCN closure show that the NCCN at each supersaturation is well predicted with the campaign average of size-resolved activation curves. These results indicate that the aerosol number size distribution is critical in the prediction of possible CCN. The CCN number concentration can be reliably estimated using time-averaged, size-resolved activation efficiencies without accounting for the temporal variations.
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    Infrequent new particle formation over the remote boreal forest of Siberia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2018) Wiedensohler, A.; Ma, N.; Birmili, W.; Heintzenberg, J.; Ditas, F.; Andreae, M.O.; Panov, A.
    Aerosol particle number size distributions (PNSD) were investigated to verify, if extremely low-volatility organic vapors (ELVOC) from natural sources alone could induce new particle formation and growth events over the remote boreal forest region of Siberia, hundreds of kilometers away from significant anthropogenic sources. We re-evaluated observations determined at a height of 300 m of the remote observatory ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory, We found that new particle formation events occurred only on 11 days in a 3-year period, suggesting that homogeneous nucleation with a subsequent condensational growth could not be the major process, maintaining the particle number concentration in the planetary boundary layer of the remote boreal forest area of Siberia. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
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    Tropospheric aerosol scattering and absorption over central Europe: A closure study for the dry particle state
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Ma, N.; Birmili, W.; Müller, T.; Tuch, T.; Cheng, Y.F.; Xu, W.Y.; Zhao, C.S.; Wiedensohler, A.
    This work analyses optical properties of the dry tropospheric aerosol measured at the regional Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observation site Melpitz in East Germany. For a continuous observation period between 2007 and 2010, we provide representative values of the dry-state scattering coefficient, hemispheric backscattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, single scattering albedo, and scattering Ångström exponent. Besides the direct measurement, the aerosol scattering coefficient was alternatively computed from experimental particle number size distributions using a Mie model. Within pre-defined limits, a closure could be achieved with the direct measurement. The achievement of closure implies that such calculations can be used as a high-level quality control measure for data sets involving multiple instrumentation. All dry-state optical properties show pronounced annual and diurnal variations, which are attributed to the corresponding variations in the regional emission fluxes, the intensity of secondary particle formation, and the mixing layer height. Air mass classification shows that atmospheric stability is a major factor influencing the dry aerosol properties at the GAW station. In the cold season, temperature inversions limit the volume available for atmospheric mixing, so that the dry-state aerosol optical properties near the ground proved quite sensitive to the geographical origin of the air mass. In the warm season, when the atmosphere is usually well-mixed during daytime, considerably less variability was observed for the optical properties between different air masses. This work provides, on the basis of quality-checked in situ measurements, a first step towards a climatological assessment of direct aerosol radiative forcing in the region under study.