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Now showing 1 - 10 of 117
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    In situ measurements of optical properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Kaaden, N.; Massling, A.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Deutscher, C.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In situ measurements of optical and physical properties of mineral dust were performed at the outskirts of the Saharan Desert in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment part 1 (SAMUM-1). Goals of the field study were to achieve information on the extent and composition of the dust particle size distribution and the optical properties of dust at the ground. For the particle number size distribution, measured with a DMPS/APS, a size dependent dynamic shape factor was considered. The mean refractive index of the particles in this field study is 1.53–4.1 × 10-3i at 537 nm wavelength and 1.53–3.1 × 10-3i at 637 nm wavelength derived from measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the particle size distribution. Whereas the real part of the refractive index is rather constant, the imaginary part varies depending on the mineral dust concentrations. For high dust concentration the single scattering albedo is primarily influenced by iron oxide and is 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.01 at 537 nm and 637 nm wavelength, respectively. During low dust concentration the single scattering albedo is more influenced by a soot-type absorber and is 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.01 for the same wavelengths.
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    Implementation of multirate time integration methods for air pollution modelling
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Schlegel, M.; Knoth, O.; Arnold, M.; Wolke, R.
    Explicit time integration methods are characterised by a small numerical effort per time step. In the application to multiscale problems in atmospheric modelling, this benefit is often more than compensated by stability problems and step size restrictions resulting from stiff chemical reaction terms and from a locally varying Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition for the advection terms. Splitting methods may be applied to efficiently combine implicit and explicit methods (IMEX splitting). Complementarily multirate time integration schemes allow for a local adaptation of the time step size to the grid size. In combination, these approaches lead to schemes which are efficient in terms of evaluations of the right-hand side. Special challenges arise when these methods are to be implemented. For an efficient implementation, it is crucial to locate and exploit redundancies. Furthermore, the more complex programme flow may lead to computational overhead which, in the worst case, more than compensates the theoretical gain in efficiency. We present a general splitting approach which allows both for IMEX splittings and for local time step adaptation. The main focus is on an efficient implementation of this approach for parallel computation on computer clusters.
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    Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kandler, K.; Schütz, L.; Deutscher, C.; Ebert, M.; Hofmann, H.; Jäckel, S.; Jaenicke, R.; Knippertz, P.; Lieke, K.; Massling, A.; Petzold, A.; Schladitz, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zorn, S.; Weinbruch, S.
    During the SAMUM 2006 field campaign in southern Morocco, physical and chemical properties of desert aerosols were measured. Mass concentrations ranging from 30μgm−3 for PM2.5 under desert background conditions up to 300 000μgm−3 for total suspended particles (TSP) during moderate dust storms were measured. TSP dust concentrations are correlated with the local wind speed, whereasPM10 andPM2.5 concentrations are determined by advection from distant sources. Size distributions were measured for particles with diameter between 20 nm and 500μm (parametrizations are given). Two major regimes of the size spectrum can be distinguished. For particles smaller than 500 nm diameter, the distributions show maxima around 80 nm, widely unaffected of varying meteorological and dust emission conditions. For particles larger than 500 nm, the range of variation may be up to one order of magnitude and up to three orders of magnitude for particles larger than 10μm. The mineralogical composition of aerosol bulk samples was measured by X-ray powder diffraction. Major constituents of the aerosol are quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, hematite and the clay minerals illite, kaolinite and chlorite. A small temporal variability of the bulk mineralogical composition was encountered. The chemical composition of approximately 74 000 particles was determined by electron microscopic single particle analysis. Three size regimes are identified: for smaller than 500 nm in diameter, the aerosol consists of sulphates and mineral dust. For larger than 500 nm up to 50μm, mineral dust dominates, consisting mainly of silicates, and—to a lesser extent—carbonates and quartz. For diameters larger than 50μm, approximately half of the particles consist of quartz. Time series of the elemental composition show a moderate temporal variability of the major compounds. Calcium-dominated particles are enhanced during advection from a prominent dust source in Northern Africa (Chott El Djerid and surroundings). The particle aspect ratio was measured for all analysed particles. Its size dependence reflects that of the chemical composition. For larger than 500 nm particle diameter, a median aspect ratio of 1.6 is measured. Towards smaller particles, it decreases to about 1.3 (parametrizations are given). From the chemical/mineralogical composition, the aerosol complex refractive index was determined for several wavelengths from ultraviolet to near-infrared. Both real and imaginary parts show lower values for particles smaller than 500 nm in diameter (1.55–2.8 × 10−3i at 530 nm) and slightly higher values for larger particles (1.57–3.7 × 10−3i at 530 nm).
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    Atmospheric new particle formation at Utö, Baltic Sea 2003-2005
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Komppula, M.; Engler, C.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Dal Maso, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.
    Nearly 3 yr (March 2003–December 2005) of continuous particle number size distribution measurements have been conducted at the island of Ut¨o in the Baltic Sea. The measured particle size range was from 7 to 530 nm. During the measurement period, a total of 103 regional new-particle formation events were observed. The characteristics of the nucleation events at Ut¨o were similar to those reported in the literature in other Nordic sites, though measured condensation sinks were rather high (geometric mean of 3.8 × 10−3 s−1) during event days. Clear evidence was found that new particles nucleate regionally near Ut¨o, rather than are transported from greater distances. However, the Baltic Sea seems to have an inhibiting effect on new-particle formation. The boreal forest areas in the continental Finland were found to have an enhancing effect on the nucleation probability in Ut¨o, suggesting that at least some of the precursor gases for nucleation and/or condensational growth of particles originate from these forests. In addition to regional new-particle formation events, a total of 94 local events were observed in Ut¨o. These are short-lived events with a small footprint area, and can at least partly be tracked down to the emissions of ship traffic operating at Ut¨o.
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    How to find bananas in the atmospheric aerosol': New approach for analyzing atmospheric nucleation and growth events
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Wehner, Birgit; Birmili, Wolfram
    We have devised a new search algorithm for secondary particle formation events, or ‘nucleation events’ in data sets of atmospheric particle size distributions. The search algorithm is simple and based on the investigation of 18 integral parameters of the particle size distribution, three of which were found to be most relevant for identifying nucleation events. The algorithm is tested using long-term size distribution data sets of high-size resolution observed at Melpitz, Hohenpeissenberg, and Leipzig, Germany, and Beijing, China, thereby covering a wide range of clean and polluted conditions. By specifying the particular training sets, the method can be used by other researchers with different data sets or different research goals. The same search approach could be applied to identify and analyze other systematic changes in size distribution such as during frontal passages or sand storms. As an example application of the new algorithm, the 50 strongest nucleation events (‘bananas’) at each of the four sites are analyzed statistically in terms of average changes of integral parameters of the particle size distribution.
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    Ground-based off-line aerosol measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: Microphysical properties and mineralogy
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kandler, K.; Schütz, L.; Jäckel, S.; Lieke, K.; Emmel, C.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Ebert, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schladitz, A.; Šegvić, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weinbruch, S.
    A large field experiment of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was performed in Praia, Cape Verde, in January and February 2008. This work reports on the aerosol mass concentrations, size distributions and mineralogical composition of the aerosol arriving at Praia. Three dust periods were recorded during the measurements, divided by transitional periods and embedded in maritime-influenced situations. The total suspended particle mass/PM10/PM2.5 were 250/180/74μg/m3 on average for the first dust period (17–21 January) and 250/230/83μg/m3 for the second (24–26 January). The third period (28 January to 2 February) was the most intensive with 410/340/130 μg/m3. Four modes were identified in the size distribution. The first mode (50–70 nm) and partly the second (700–1100 nm) can be regarded as of marine origin, but some dust contributes to the latter. The third mode (2–4 μm) is dominated by advected dust, while the intermittently occurring fourth mode (15–70 μm) may have a local contribution. The dust consisted of kaolinite (dust/maritime period: 35%wt./25%wt.),K-feldspar (20%wt./25%wt.), illite (14%wt./10%wt.), quartz (11%wt./8%wt.), smectites (6%wt./4%wt.), plagioclase (6%wt./1%wt.), gypsum (4%wt./7%wt.), halite (2%wt./17%wt.) and calcite (2%wt./3%wt.).
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    Desert dust aerosol air mass mapping in the western Sahara, using particle properties derived from space-based multi-angle imaging
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Müller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-HUENE, Wolfgang
    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite’s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05–0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR’s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.
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    Solar radiative effects of a Saharan dust plume observed during SAMUM assuming spheroidal model particles
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Otto, Sebastian; Bierwirth, Eike; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Kandler, Konrad; Esselborn, Michael; Tesche, Matthias; Schladitz, Alexander; Wendisch, Manfred; Trautmann, Thomas
    The solar optical properties of Saharan mineral dust observed during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) were explored based on measured size-number distributions and chemical composition. The size-resolved complex refractive index of the dust was derived with real parts of 1.51–1.55 and imaginary parts of 0.0008–0.006 at 550 nm wavelength. At this spectral range a single scattering albedo ωo and an asymmetry parameter g of about 0.8 were derived. These values were largely determined by the presence of coarse particles. Backscatter coefficients and lidar ratios calculated with Mie theory (spherical particles) were not found to be in agreement with independently measured lidar data. Obviously the measured Saharan mineral dust particles were of non-spherical shape. With the help of these lidar and sun photometer measurements the particle shape as well as the spherical equivalence were estimated. It turned out that volume equivalent oblate spheroids with an effective axis ratio of 1:1.6 matched these data best. This aspect ratio was also confirmed by independent single particle analyses using a scanning electron microscope. In order to perform the non-spherical computations, a database of single particle optical properties was assembled for oblate and prolate spheroidal particles. These data were also the basis for simulating the non-sphericity effects on the dust optical properties: ωo is influenced by up to a magnitude of only 1% and g is diminished by up to 4% assuming volume equivalent oblate spheroids with an axis ratio of 1:1.6 instead of spheres. Changes in the extinction optical depth are within 3.5%. Non-spherical particles affect the downwelling radiative transfer close to the bottom of the atmosphere, however, they significantly enhance the backscattering towards the top of the atmosphere: Compared to Mie theory the particle non-sphericity leads to forced cooling of the Earth-atmosphere system in the solar spectral range for both dust over ocean and desert.
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    Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; MüLLER, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Mattis, Ina; Heese, Birgit; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Pisani, Gianluca; Knippertz, Peter
    Three ground-based Raman lidars and an airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) were operated duringSAMUM 2006 in southern Morocco to measure height profiles of the volume extinction coefficient, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and the depolarization ratio of dust particles in the Saharan dust layer at several wavelengths. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations and radiosoundings of meteorological parameters complemented the ground-based activities at the SAMUM station of Ouarzazate. Four case studies are presented. Two case studies deal with the comparison of observations of the three ground-based lidars during a heavy dust outbreak and of the ground-based lidars with the airborne lidar. Two further cases show profile observations during satellite overpasses on 19 May and 4 June 2006. The height resolved statistical analysis reveals that the dust layer top typically reaches 4–6 km height above sea level (a.s.l.), sometimes even 7 km a.s.l.. Usually, a vertically inhomogeneous dust plume with internal dust layers was observed in the morning before the evolution of the boundary layer started. The Saharan dust layer was well mixed in the early evening. The 500 nm dust optical depth ranged from 0.2–0.8 at the field site south of the High Atlas mountains, Ångström exponents derived from photometer and lidar data were between 0–0.4. The volume extinction coefficients (355, 532 nm) varied from 30–300Mm−1 with a mean value of 100Mm−1 in the lowest 4 km a.s.l.. On average, extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 53–55 sr (±7–13 sr) were obtained at 355, 532 and 1064 nm.
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    Aerosol particle formation events and analysis of high growth rates observed above a subarctic wetland-forest mosaic
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Svenningsson, Birgitta; Arneth, Almut; Hayward, Sean; Holst, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik; Hirsikko, Anne; Junninen, Heikki; Riipinen, Ilona; Vana, Marko; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hussein, Tareq; Kulmala, Markku
    An analysis of particle formation (PF) events over a subarctic mire in northern Swedenwas performed, based on number– size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles (10–500 nm in diameter) and ions (0.4–40 nm in Tammet diameter). We present classification statistics for PF events from measurements covering the period July 2005–September 2006, with a break over the winter period. The PF event frequency peaked during the summer months, in contrast to other Scandinavian sites where the frequency is highest during spring and autumn. Our analysis includes calculated growth rates and estimates of concentrations and production rates of condensing vapour, deduced from the growth rates and condensational sink calculations, using AIS and SMPS data. Particle formation events with high growth rates (up to 50 nm h-1) occurred repeatedly. In these cases, the newly formed nucleation mode particles were often only present for periods of a few hours. On several occasions, repeated particle formation events were observed within 1 d, with differences in onset time of a few hours. These high growth rates were only observed when the condensation sink was higher than 0.001 s-1.