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    Polymeric monolithic materials: Syntheses, properties, functionalization and applications
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2007) Buchmeiser, M.R.
    The synthetic particularities for the synthesis of polymer-based monolithic materials are summarized. In this context, monoliths prepared via thermal-, UV- or electron-beam triggered free radical polymerization, controlled TEMPO-mediated radical polymerization, polyaddition, polycondensation as well as living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) will be covered. Particular attention is devoted to the aspects of controlling pore sizes, pore volumes and pore size distributions as well as functionalization of these supports. Finally, selected, recent applications in separation science, (bio-) catalysis and chip technology will be summarized. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol - Part 2: Theoretical approaches
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Wex, H.; Petters, M.D.; Carrico, C.M.; Hallbauer, E.; Massling, A.; McMeeking, G.R.; Poulain, L.; Wu, Z.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Stratmann, F.
    We examine the hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol particles generated through the reaction of α-pinene and ozone using a continuous flow reaction chamber. The water activity versus composition relationship is calculated from measurements of growth factors at relative humidities up to 99.6% and from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity. The observed relationships are complex, suggesting highly non-ideal behavior for aerosol water contents at relative humidities less than 98%. We present two models that may explain the observed water activity-composition relationship equally well. The first model assumes that the aerosol is a pseudo binary mixture of infinitely water soluble compounds and sparingly soluble compounds that gradually enter the solution as dilution increases. The second model is used to compute the Gibbs free energy of the aerosol-water mixture and shows that the aerosol behaves similarly to what can be expected for single compounds that contain a certain fraction of oxygenated and non-polar functional groups.
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    Magnetic quantum oscillations of diagonal conductivity in a two-dimensional conductor with a weak square superlattice modulation under conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Gvozdikov, V.M.; Taut, M.
    We report on analytical and numerical studies of the magnetic quantum oscillations of the diagonal conductivity σxx in a two-dimensional conductor with a weak square superlattice modulation under conditions of the integer quantum Hall (IQHE) effect. The quantum Hall effect in such a system differs from the conventional IQHE, in which the finite width of the Landau bands is due to disorder only. The superlattice modulation potential yields a fractal splitting of the Landau levels into Hofstadter minibands. For rational flux through a unit cell, the minibands have a finite width and intrinsic dispersion relations. We consider a regime, now accessible experimentally, in which disorder does not wash out the fractal internal gap structure of the Landau bands completely. We found the following distinctions from the conventional IQHE produced by the superlattice: (i) the peaks in diagonal conductivity are split due to the Hofstadter miniband structure of Landau bands; (ii) the number of split peaks in the bunch, their positions and heights depend irregularly on the magnetic field and the Fermi energy; (iii) the gaps between the split Landau bands (and related quantum Hall plateaus) become narrower with the superlattice modulation than without it.
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    Plasma-oxidative degradation of polyphenolics – Influence of non-thermal gas discharges with respect to fresh produce processing
    (Prague : ČSAZV, 2009) Grzegorzewski, F.; Schlüter, O.; Ehlbeck, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Geyer, M.; Kroh, L.W.; Rohn, S.
    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technology to enhance the shelf-life of fresh or minimaly processed food. An efficient inactivation of microorganisms comes along with a moderate heating of the treated surface. To elucidate the influence of highly reactive plasma-immanent species on the stability and chemical behaviour of phytochemicals, several polyphenolics were exposed to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The selected flavonoids are ideal target compounds due to their antioxidant activity protecting cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. Reactions were carried out at various radio-frequency voltages, using Ar as a feeding gas. Degradation was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
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    Kelvin probe force microscopy of charged indentation-induced dislocation structures in KBr
    (Saarbrücken : Leibniz-Institut für neue Materialien, 2009) Egberts, Philip; Bennewitz, Roland
    The incipient stages of plasticity in KBr single crystals have been examined in ultrahigh vacuum by means of Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM). Conducting diamond-coated tips have been used to both indent the crystals and image the resulting plastic deformation. KPFM reveals that edge dislocations intersecting the surface carry a negative charge similar to kinks in surface steps, while screw dislocations show no contrast. Weak topographic features extending in <110> direction from the indentation are identified by atomic-resolution imaging to be pairs of edge dislocations of opposite sign, separated by a distance similar to the indenter radius. They indicate the glide of two parallel {110} planes perpendicular to the surface, a process that allows for a slice of KBr to be pushed away from the indentation site.
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    Momentum-resolved superconducting gap in the bulk of Ba1-xK xFe2As2 from combined ARPES and μSR measurements
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Evtushinsky, D.V.; Inosov, D.S.; Zabolotnyy, V.B.; Viazovska, M.S.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Klauss, H.-H.; Luetkens, H.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Sun, G.L.; Hinkov, V.; Lin, C.T.; Varykhalov, A.; Koitzsch, A.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Kordyuk, A.A.; Borisenko, S.V.
    Here we present a calculation of the temperature-dependent London penetration depth, λ(T), in Ba1-xKxFe 2As2 (BKFA) on the basis of the electronic band structure (Zabolotnyy et al 2009 Nature 457 569, Zabolotnyy et al 2009 Physica C 469 448) and momentum-dependent superconducting gap (Evtushinsky et al 2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 054517) extracted from angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. The results are compared to the direct measurements of λ(T) by muon spin rotation (μSR) (Khasanov et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 187005). The value of λ(T = 0), calculated with no adjustable parameters, equals 270 nm, while the directly measured one is 320 nm; the temperature dependence λ(T) is also easily reproduced. Such agreement between the two completely different approaches allows us to conclude that ARPES studies of BKFA are bulk-representative. Our review of the available experimental studies of the superconducting gap in the new ironbased superconductors in general allows us to state that most of them bear two nearly isotropic gaps with coupling constants 2ΔkBTc = 2.5±1.5 and 7±2.
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    Sensitivity of polar stratospheric ozone loss to uncertainties in chemical reaction kinetics
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2009) Kawa, S.R.; Stolarski, R.S.; Newman, P.A.; Douglass, A.R.; Rex, M.; Hofmann, D.J.; Santee, M.L.; Frieler, K.
    The impact and significance of uncertainties in model calculations of stratospheric ozone loss resulting from known uncertainty in chemical kinetics parameters is evaluated in trajectory chemistry simulations for the Antarctic and Arctic polar vortices. The uncertainty in modeled ozone loss is derived from Monte Carlo scenario simulations varying the kinetic (reaction and photolysis rate) parameters within their estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulations of a typical winter/spring Antarctic vortex scenario and Match scenarios in the Arctic produce large uncertainty in ozone loss rates and integrated seasonal loss. The simulations clearly indicate that the dominant source of model uncertainty in polar ozone loss is uncertainty in the Cl2O 2 photolysis reaction, which arises from uncertainty in laboratory-measured molecular cross sections at atmospherically important wavelengths. This estimated uncertainty in JCl 2O2 from laboratory measurements seriously hinders our ability to model polar ozone loss within useful quantitative error limits. Atmospheric observations, however, suggest that the Cl2O2 photolysis uncertainty may be less than that derived from the lab data. Comparisons to Match, South Pole ozonesonde, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data all show that the nominal recommended rate simulations agree with data within uncertainties when the Cl2O2 photolysis error is reduced by a factor of two, in line with previous in situ ClOx measurements. Comparisons to simulations using recent cross sections from Pope et al. (2007) are outside the constrained error bounds in each case. Other reactions producing significant sensitivity in polar ozone loss include BrO + ClO and its branching ratios. These uncertainties challenge our confidence in modeling polar ozone depletion and projecting future changes in response to changing halogen emissions and climate. Further laboratory, theoretical, and possibly atmospheric studies are needed.
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    Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Kroll, T.; Roth, F.; Koitzsch, A.; Kraus, R.; Batchelor, D.R.; Werner, J.; Behr, G.; Büchner, B.; Knupfer, M.
    The electronic structure of various rare-earth oxypnictides has been investigated by performing Fe L2, 3 x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Fe 2p and valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. As representative samples the non-superconducting parent compounds LnFeAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Sm and Gd) have been chosen and measured at 25 and 300 K, i.e. below and above the structural and magnetic phase transition at ~150 K. We find no significant change of the electronic structure of the FeAs layers when switching between the different rare-earth ions or when varying the temperature below and above the transition temperatures. Using a simple two-configuration model, we find qualitative agreement with the Fe 2p3/2 core-level spectrum, which allows for a qualitative explanation of the experimental spectral shapes.
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    Particles as probes for complex plasmas in front of biased surfaces
    (College Park, MD : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2009) Basner, R.; Sigeneger, F.; Loffhagen, D.; Schubert, G.; Fehske, H.; Kersten, H.
    An interesting aspect in the research of complex (dusty) plasmas is the experimental study of the interaction of micro-particles with the surrounding plasma for diagnostic purposes. Local electric fields can be determined from the behaviour of particles in the plasma, e.g. particles may serve as electrostatic probes. Since in many cases of applications in plasma technology it is of great interest to describe the electric field conditions in front of floating or biased surfaces, the confinement and behaviour of test particles is studied in front of floating walls inserted into a plasma as well as in front of additionally biased surfaces. For the latter case, the behaviour of particles in front of an adaptive electrode, which allows for an efficient confinement and manipulation of the grains, has been experimentally studied in terms of the dependence on the discharge parameters and on different bias conditions of the electrode. The effect of the partially biased surface (dc and rf) on the charged micro-particles has been investigated by particle falling experiments. In addition to the experiments, we also investigate the particle behaviour numerically by molecular dynamics, in combination with a fluid and particle-in-cell description of the plasma. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
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    Terrestrial vegetation redistribution and carbon balance under climate change
    (London : BioMed Central, 2006) Lucht, Wolfgang; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Erbrecht, Tim; Heyder, Ursula; Cramer, Wolfgang
    Background Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) compute the terrestrial carbon balance as well as the transient spatial distribution of vegetation. We study two scenarios of moderate and strong climate change (2.9 K and 5.3 K temperature increase over present) to investigate the spatial redistribution of major vegetation types and their carbon balance in the year 2100. Results The world's land vegetation will be more deciduous than at present, and contain about 125 billion tons of additional carbon. While a recession of the boreal forest is simulated in some areas, along with a general expansion to the north, we do not observe a reported collapse of the central Amazonian rain forest. Rather, a decrease of biomass and a change of vegetation type occurs in its northeastern part. The ability of the terrestrial biosphere to sequester carbon from the atmosphere declines strongly in the second half of the 21st century. Conclusion Climate change will cause widespread shifts in the distribution of major vegetation functional types on all continents by the year 2100.