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    Regional income and wave energy deployment in Ireland
    (Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell, 2020) Farrell, Niall; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Morrissey, Karyn
    Alongside environmental benefits, renewable energy deployment is often evaluated on grounds of regional development. Focusing on wave energy deployment in Ireland, this paper quantifies employment-related welfare change net of associated subsidy costs. Although the added employment reduces inter-regional inequality, certain subsidies increase total income inequality by a greater extent. Total inequality increases by 0.25% in the preferred scenario. This pattern of incidence persists under an optimistic scenario where all manufacturing activity is carried out locally. This finding highlights that policies of regional development should consider the spatial distribution of associated subsidy costs.
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    Early Last Interglacial ocean warming drove substantial ice mass loss from Antarctica
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2020) Turney, Chris S.M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; McKay, Nicholas P.; van Sebille, Erik; Jones, Richard T.; Etheridge, David; Rubino, Mauro; Thornton, David P.; Davies, Siwan M.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Thomas, Zoë A.; Bird, Michael I.; Munksgaard, Niels C.; Kohno, Mika; Woodward, John; Winter, Kate; Weyrich, Laura S.; Rootes, Camilla M.; Millman, Helen; Albert, Paul G.; Rivera, Andres; van Ommen, Tas; Curran, Mark; Moy, Andrew; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Kawamura, Kenji; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Weber, Michael E.; Manning, Christina J.; Young, Jennifer; Cooper, Alan
    The future response of the Antarctic ice sheet to rising temperatures remains highly uncertain. A useful period for assessing the sensitivity of Antarctica to warming is the Last Interglacial (LIG) (129 to 116 ky), which experienced warmer polar temperatures and higher global mean sea level (GMSL) (+6 to 9 m) relative to present day. LIG sea level cannot be fully explained by Greenland Ice Sheet melt (∼2 m), ocean thermal expansion, and melting mountain glaciers (∼1 m), suggesting substantial Antarctic mass loss was initiated by warming of Southern Ocean waters, resulting from a weakening Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in response to North Atlantic surface freshening. Here, we report a blue-ice record of ice sheet and environmental change from the Weddell Sea Embayment at the periphery of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which is underlain by major methane hydrate reserves. Constrained by a widespread volcanic horizon and supported by ancient microbial DNA analyses, we provide evidence for substantial mass loss across the Weddell Sea Embayment during the LIG, most likely driven by ocean warming and associated with destabilization of subglacial hydrates. Ice sheet modeling supports this interpretation and suggests that millennial-scale warming of the Southern Ocean could have triggered a multimeter rise in global sea levels. Our data indicate that Antarctica is highly vulnerable to projected increases in ocean temperatures and may drive ice-climate feedbacks that further amplify warming.
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    Reply to Burgess et al: Catastrophic climate risks are neglected, plausible, and safe to study
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2022) Kemp, Luke; Xu, Chi; Depledge, Joanna; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gibbins, Goodwin; Kohler, Timothy A.; Rockström, Johan; Scheffer, Marten; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Steffen, Will; Lenton, Timothy M.
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    Nanovesicles displaying functional linear and branched oligomannose self-assembled from sequence-defined Janus glycodendrimers
    (Washington, DC : NAS, 2020) Xiao, Qi; Delbianco, Martina; Sherman, Samuel E.; Reveron Perez, Aracelee M.; Bharate, Priya; Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Kostina, Nina Yu; Rahimi, Khosrow; Söder, Dominik; Möller, Martin; Klein, Michael L.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Percec, Virgil
    Cell surfaces are often decorated with glycoconjugates that contain linear and more complex symmetrically and asymmetrically branched carbohydrates essential for cellular recognition and communication processes. Mannose is one of the fundamental building blocks of glycans in many biological membranes. Moreover, oligomannoses are commonly found on the surface of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses as both glycolipids and glycoproteins. However, their mechanism of action is not well understood, even though this is of great potential interest for translational medicine. Sequence-defined amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers containing simple mono- and disaccharides that mimic glycolipids are known to self-assemble into glycodendrimersomes, which in turn resemble the surface of a cell by encoding carbohydrate activity via supramolecular multivalency. The synthetic challenge of preparing Janus glycodendrimers containing more complex linear and branched glycans has so far prevented access to more realistic cell mimics. However, the present work reports the use of an isothiocyanate-amine “click”-like reaction between isothiocyanate-containing sequence-defined amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and either linear or branched oligosaccharides containing up to six monosaccharide units attached to a hydrophobic amino-pentyl linker, a construct not expected to assemble into glycodendrimersomes. Unexpectedly, these oligoMan-containing dendrimers, which have their hydrophobic linker connected via a thiourea group to the amphiphilic part of Janus glycodendrimers, self-organize into nanoscale glycodendrimersomes. Specifically, the mannose-binding lectins that best agglutinate glycodendrimersomes are those displaying hexamannose. Lamellar “raft-like” nanomorphologies on the surface of glycodendrimersomes, self-organized from these sequence-defined glycans, endow these membrane mimics with high biological activity. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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    Design–functionality relationships for adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2019) Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Michalak, Malwina; Xiao, Qi; Gilles, Ulrich; Medrano, Francisco J.; Ma, Hanyue; FitzGerald, Forrest G.; Hasley, William D.; Melendez-Davila, Adriel; Liu, Matthew; Rahimi, Khosrow; Kostina, Nina Yu; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Möller, Martin; Lindner, Ingo; Kaltner, Herbert; Cudic, Mare; Reusch, Dietmar; Kopitz, Jürgen; Romero, Antonio; Oscarson, Stefan; Klein, Michael L.; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Percec, Virgil
    Glycan-lectin recognition is assumed to elicit its broad range of (patho)physiological functions via a combination of specific contact formation with generation of complexes of distinct signal-triggering topology on biomembranes. Faced with the challenge to understand why evolution has led to three particular modes of modular architecture for adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins in vertebrates, here we introduce protein engineering to enable design switches. The impact of changes is measured in assays on cell growth and on bridging fully synthetic nanovesicles (glycodendrimersomes) with a chemically programmable surface. Using the example of homodimeric galectin-1 and monomeric galectin-3, the mutual design conversion caused qualitative differences, i.e., from bridging effector to antagonist/from antagonist to growth inhibitor and vice versa. In addition to attaining proof-of-principle evidence for the hypothesis that chimera-type galectin-3 design makes functional antagonism possible, we underscore the value of versatile surface programming with a derivative of the pan-galectin ligand lactose. Aggregation assays with N,N′-diacetyllactosamine establishing a parasite-like surface signature revealed marked selectivity among the family of galectins and bridging potency of homodimers. These findings provide fundamental insights into design-functionality relationships of galectins. Moreover, our strategy generates the tools to identify biofunctional lattice formation on biomembranes and galectin-reagents with therapeutic potential.
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    Gas plasma–oxidized sodium chloride acts via hydrogen peroxide in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2022) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Clemen, Ramona; Kersting, Stephan; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma technology generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), inducing lethal oxidative damage in tumor cells. The transfer of gas plasma–derived ROS/RNS into liquids has been proposed as an innovative anti-cancer strategy targeting peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, the mechanism of action is under debate. To this end, we compared gas plasma–oxidized medical-grade sodium chloride (oxNaCl) with a concentration-matched control (cmc) of NaCl enriched with equivalent concentrations of H2O2 and NO32 in several cell lines and models of PC. Strikingly, oxNaCl and cmc performed equally well in oxidation and cytotoxic activity in tumor cells in two-dimensional cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids, vascularized 3D tumors grown on chicken-embryo chorioallantoic membranes, and a syngeneic PC mouse model in vivo. Given the importance of immunotherapies in oncology today, we focused on immunological consequences of the treatment. Again, to a similar extent, oxNaCl and cmc increased tumor cell immunogenicity and enhanced uptake by and maturation of peripheral blood monocyte–derived dendritic cells together with an inflammatory secretion profile. Furthermore, NanoString gene expression profiling revealed immune system processes and unfolded protein response-related pathways as being linked to the observed anti-tumor effects for both oxNaCl and cmc. In conclusion, gas plasma–generated oxNaCl and cmc showed equal therapeutic efficacy in our PC-related models. In light of the many promising anti-cancer studies of gas plasma–oxidized liquids and the convenient production of corresponding cmcs in large quantities as needed in clinics, our findings may spur research lines based on low-dose oxidants in peritoneal cancer therapy.
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    Respiratory patterns of European pear (Pyrus communis L. ‘Conference’) throughout pre- and post-harvest fruit development
    (London [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2019) Brandes, Nicole; Zude-Sasse, Manuela
    Information on the developmental stage of pear pre-harvest and in shelf-life is crucial to determine the optimum timing of harvest, post-harvest treatment, and time of consumption ensuring high eating quality. In the present study, CO2 emission and fruit quality of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) ‘Conference’ were analysed pre- and post-harvest with emphasis on shelf life for three years. Additionally, cytochrome and cyanide-resistant O2 consumption were analysed in the last year of experiments. The respiration rate of pear showed typical climacteric rise of CO2 emission in two years only, despite daily measurements. However, in each year the fruit quality in shelf life was closely linked to harvest date suggesting climacteric fruit response. Thus, the developmental stage of ‘Conference’ pear should be analysed by additional methods. Particularly, the cytochrome and cyanide-resistant O2 consumption showed an encouraging potential to obtain data on characteristic respiratory patterns. © 2019
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    Encapsulation of hydrophobic components in dendrimersomes and decoration of their surface with proteins and nucleic acids
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2019) Torre, Paola; Xiao, Qi; Buzzacchera, Irene; Sherman, Samuel E.; Rahimi, Khosrow; Kostina, Nina Yu.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Möller, Martin; Wilson, Christopher J.; Klein, Michael L.; Good, Matthew C.; Percec, Virgil
    Reconstructing the functions of living cells using nonnatural components is one of the great challenges of natural sciences. Compartmentalization, encapsulation, and surface decoration of globular assemblies, known as vesicles, represent key early steps in the reconstitution of synthetic cells. Here we report that vesicles self-assembled from amphiphilic Janus dendrimers, called dendrimersomes, encapsulate high concentrations of hydrophobic components and do so more efficiently than commercially available stealth liposomes assembled from phospholipid components. Multilayer onion-like dendrimersomes demonstrate a particularly high capacity for loading low-molecular weight compounds and even folded proteins. Coassembly of amphiphilic Janus dendrimers with metal-chelating ligands conjugated to amphiphilic Janus dendrimers generates dendrimersomes that selectively display folded proteins on their periphery in an oriented manner. A modular strategy for tethering nucleic acids to the surface of dendrimersomes is also demonstrated. These findings augment the functional capabilities of dendrimersomes to serve as versatile biological membrane mimics.