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    Multiproxy approach to the reconstruction of soil denudation events and the disappearance of Luvisols in the loess landscape of south-western Poland
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2022) Loba, Aleksandra; Zhang, Junjie; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Kasprzak, Marek; Beata Kowalska, Joanna; Frechen, Manfred; Waroszewski, Jarosław
    Loess landscapes are highly susceptible to soil redeposition processes and thus may provide detailed insights into the record of denudation processes. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating and the soil micromorphology of 12 soil profiles, we reconstructed a complete record of denudation processes in south-western Poland. The first episode of soil redeposition took place around 9.1 ka. The denudation events that followed were attributed to the Neolithic (6.4 ± 0.3 ka), early Bronze Age (3.8 ± 0.2 ka), early and late Middle Ages (1.5 ± 0.1 ka and 0.7 ± 0.03 ka, respectively) and early Modern (0.4 ± 0.02 ka). As a consequence of the denudation processes, the soil cover in the studied area had been strongly reshaped. The predominant Luvisols had experienced progressive erosion processes that led first to a significant shallowing of the eluvial and argic horizons (truncated Luvisol) and, after some time, to their complete removal. Further thinning of the loess mantles had exposed geological substrates with very weak pedogenic alternations, thus pushing their transformation towards Regosol types. Similarly, Regosols occurred in toeslopes where freshly eroded material had been deposited, and where diagnostic horizons had not yet developed. Modern soil erosion rates in the studied loess area have considerably increased, and it is estimated that the Luvisol status may be completely transformed within approximately 80–300 years, if not sooner, due to progressive climate change.
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    Simulation of the future sea level contribution of Greenland with a new glacial system model
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Calov, Reinhard; Beyer, Sebastian; Greve, Ralf; Beckmann, Johanna; Willeit, Matteo; Kleiner, Thomas; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika; Ganopolski, Andrey
    We introduce the coupled model of the Greenland glacial system IGLOO 1.0, including the polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (version 3.3) with hybrid dynamics, the model of basal hydrology HYDRO and a parameterization of submarine melt for marine-terminated outlet glaciers. The aim of this glacial system model is to gain a better understanding of the processes important for the future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level rise under future climate change scenarios. The ice sheet is initialized via a relaxation towards observed surface elevation, imposing the palaeo-surface temperature over the last glacial cycle. As a present-day reference, we use the 1961-1990 standard climatology derived from simulations of the regional atmosphere model MAR with ERA reanalysis boundary conditions. For the palaeo-part of the spin-up, we add the temperature anomaly derived from the GRIP ice core to the years 1961-1990 average surface temperature field. For our projections, we apply surface temperature and surface mass balance anomalies derived from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios created by MAR with boundary conditions from simulations with three CMIP5 models. The hybrid ice sheet model is fully coupled with the model of basal hydrology. With this model and the MAR scenarios, we perform simulations to estimate the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea level rise until the end of the 21st and 23rd centuries. Further on, the impact of elevation-surface mass balance feedback, introduced via the MAR data, on future sea level rise is inspected. In our projections, we found the Greenland ice sheet to contribute between 1.9 and 13.0 cm to global sea level rise until the year 2100 and between 3.5 and 76.4 cm until the year 2300, including our simulated additional sea level rise due to elevation-surface mass balance feedback. Translated into additional sea level rise, the strength of this feedback in the year 2100 varies from 0.4 to 1.7 cm, and in the year 2300 it ranges from 1.7 to 21.8 cm. Additionally, taking the Helheim and Store glaciers as examples, we investigate the role of ocean warming and surface runoff change for the melting of outlet glaciers. It shows that ocean temperature and subglacial discharge are about equally important for the melting of the examined outlet glaciers.
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    Implementing the nitrogen cycle into the dynamic global vegetation, hydrology, and crop growth model LPJmL (version 5.0)
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) von Bloh, Werner; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Müller, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Waha, Katharina; Zaehle, Sönke
    The well-established dynamical global vegetation, hydrology, and crop growth model LPJmL is extended with a terrestrial nitrogen cycle to account for nutrient limitations. In particular, processes of soil nitrogen dynamics, plant uptake, nitrogen allocation, response of photosynthesis and maintenance respiration to varying nitrogen concentrations in plant organs, and agricultural nitrogen management are included in the model. All new model features are described in full detail and the results of a global simulation of the historic past (1901-2009) are presented for evaluation of the model performance. We find that the implementation of nitrogen limitation significantly improves the simulation of global patterns of crop productivity. Regional differences in crop productivity, which had to be calibrated via a scaling of the maximum leaf area index, can now largely be reproduced by the model, except for regions where fertilizer inputs and climate conditions are not the yield-limiting factors. Furthermore, it can be shown that land use has a strong influence on nitrogen losses, increasing leaching by 93 %.
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    Grounding-line flux formula applied as a flux condition in numerical simulations fails for buttressed Antarctic ice streams
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Reese, Ronja; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar
    Currently, several large-scale ice-flow models impose a condition on ice flux across grounding lines using an analytically motivated parameterisation of grounding-line flux. It has been suggested that employing this analytical expression alleviates the need for highly resolved computational domains around grounding lines of marine ice sheets. While the analytical flux formula is expected to be accurate in an unbuttressed flow-line setting, its validity has hitherto not been assessed for complex and realistic geometries such as those of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Here the accuracy of this analytical flux formula is tested against an optimised ice flow model that uses a highly resolved computational mesh around the Antarctic grounding lines. We find that when applied to the Antarctic Ice Sheet the analytical expression provides inaccurate estimates of ice fluxes for almost all grounding lines. Furthermore, in many instances direct application of the analytical formula gives rise to unphysical complex-valued ice fluxes. We conclude that grounding lines of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are, in general, too highly buttressed for the analytical parameterisation to be of practical value for the calculation of grounding-line fluxes.
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    A protocol for an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized land-use and climate scenarios
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Kim, HyeJin; Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Alkemade, Rob; Leadley, Paul; Hurtt, George; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Baisero, Daniele; Caton, Emma; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Chini, Louise; De Palma, Adriana; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Di Marco, Moreno; Espinoza, Felipe; Ferrier, Simon; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Gonzalez, Ricardo E.; Gueguen, Maya; Guerra, Carlos; Harfoot, Mike; Harwood, Thomas D.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Haverd, Vanessa; Havlík, Petr; Hellweg, Stefanie; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Hirata, Akiko; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Janse, Jan H.; Jetz, Walter; Johnson, Justin A.; Krause, Andreas; Leclère, David; Martins, Ines S.; Matsui, Tetsuya; Merow, Cory; Obersteiner, Michael; Ohashi, Haruka; Poulter, Benjamin; Purvis, Andy; Quesada, Benjamin; Rondinini, Carlo; Schipper, Aafke M.; Sharp, Richard; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Thuiller, Wilfried; Titeux, Nicolas; Visconti, Piero; Ware, Christopher; Wolf, Florian; Pereira, Henrique M.
    To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts of land-use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services (i.e., nature's contributions to people) over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century, using a set of common metrics at multiple scales, and (2) to identify model uncertainties and research gaps through the comparisons of projected biodiversity and ecosystem services across models. BES-SIM uses three scenarios combining specific Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)-SSP1xRCP2.6, SSP3xRCP6.0, SSP5xRCP8.6-to explore a wide range of land-use change and climate change futures. This paper describes the rationale for scenario selection, the process of harmonizing input data for land use, based on the second phase of the Land Use Harmonization Project (LUH2), and climate, the biodiversity and ecosystem services models used, the core simulations carried out, the harmonization of the model output metrics, and the treatment of uncertainty. The results of this collaborative modeling project will support the ongoing global assessment of IPBES, strengthen ties between IPBES and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and modeling processes, advise the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on its development of a post-2020 strategic plans and conservation goals, and inform the development of a new generation of nature-centred scenarios.
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    SURFER v2.0: a flexible and simple model linking anthropogenic CO2 emissions and solar radiation modification to ocean acidification and sea level rise
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Martínez Montero, Marina; Crucifix, Michel; Couplet, Victor; Brede, Nuria; Botta, Nicola
    We present SURFER, a novel reduced model for estimating the impact of CO2 emissions and solar radiation modification options on sea level rise and ocean acidification over timescales of several thousands of years. SURFER has been designed for the analysis of CO2 emission and solar radiation modification policies, for supporting the computation of optimal (CO2 emission and solar radiation modification) policies and for the study of commitment and responsibility under uncertainty. The model is based on a combination of conservation laws for the masses of atmospheric and oceanic carbon and for the oceanic temperature anomalies, and of ad-hoc parameterisations for the different sea level rise contributors: ice sheets, glaciers and ocean thermal expansion. It consists of 9 loosely coupled ordinary differential equations, is understandable, fast and easy to modify and calibrate. It reproduces the results of more sophisticated, high-dimensional earth system models on timescales up to millennia.
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    Chronostratigraphy of silt-dominated Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits on Mt. Ślęża (SW, Poland): Palaeoenvironmental and pedogenic significance
    (New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Waroszewski, Jaroslaw; Sprafke, Tobias; Kabala, Cezary; Musztyfaga, Elżbieta; Kot, Aleksandra; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Frechen, Manfred
    Slope deposits with aeolian silt admixture are a widespread parent material of soils in the temperate zone but may be neglected when rates of soil production are quantified. The concept of periglacial cover beds differentiates slope deposits with or without aeolian silt admixture; yet there is a remaining debate on processes and the timing of their formation. A previous study done by us at Mt. Ślęża, SW Poland, concluded that slope deposits with variable aeolian silt admixture, or its lack, have a significant influence on the pathway of soil formation. The present work builds upon this finding, by adding further granulometric and micromorphological data from three representative profiles along a toposequence, in order to refine our understanding of local slope deposits and soil formation. Additionally, seven numerical ages using luminescence dating provide a chronological framework for our reconstructions and allow linking the forming processes of these pedosedimentary records to regional palaeoenvironmental conditions. The oldest aeolian deposits are of Middle Pleistocene age (>280 ± 19 ka) with interlayered palaeosol (marine isotope stage [MIS] 9 or older). Late Pleistocene slope deposits encompass the maximum loess thickness and are dated to MIS 2. Luminescence ages from the upper layers indicate shallow reworking, which we tentatively correlate to the Younger Dryas (YD). Two profiles with thick loess mantles have strong clay illuviation features, presumably formed during the Holocene. However, weak clay illuviation in the third profile with a thin loess mantle (having an age of YD) over granite regolith seems to have occurred before the Holocene, as only fragmented clay coatings (probably MIS 2 pedogenesis) could be found. © 2020 The Authors
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    A confined-unconfined aquifer model for subglacial hydrology and its application to the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Beyer, Sebastian; Kleiner, Thomas; Aizinger, Vadym; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika
    Subglacial hydrology plays an important role in ice sheet dynamics as it determines the sliding velocity. It also drives freshwater into the ocean, leading to undercutting of calving fronts by plumes. Modeling subglacial water has been a challenge for decades. Only recently have new approaches been developed such as representing subglacial channels and thin water sheets by separate layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. We extend this concept by modeling a confined-unconfined aquifer system (CUAS) in a single layer of an equivalent porous medium (EPM). The advantage of this formulation is that it prevents unphysical values of pressure at reasonable computational cost. We performed sensitivity tests to investigate the effect of different model parameters. The strongest influence of model parameters was detected in terms of governing the opening and closure of the system. Furthermore, we applied the model to the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream, where an efficient system independent of seasonal input was identified about 500 km downstream from the ice divide. Using the effective pressure from the hydrology model, the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) showed considerable improvements in modeled velocities in the coastal region.
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    A generic pixel-to-point comparison for simulated large-scale ecosystem properties and ground-based observations: An example from the Amazon region
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Rammig, Anja; Heinke, Jens; Hofhansl, Florian; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy R.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Fleischer, Katrin; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Huth, Andreas; Johnson, Michelle; Krujit, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Papastefanou, Phillip; Sampaio, Gilvan; Thonicke, Kirsten; von Randow, Celso; Zang, Christian; Rödig, Edna
    Comparing model output and observed data is an important step for assessing model performance and quality of simulation results. However, such comparisons are often hampered by differences in spatial scales between local point observations and large-scale simulations of grid cells or pixels. In this study, we propose a generic approach for a pixel-to-point comparison and provide statistical measures accounting for the uncertainty resulting from landscape variability and measurement errors in ecosystem variables. The basic concept of our approach is to determine the statistical properties of small-scale (within-pixel) variability and observational errors, and to use this information to correct for their effect when large-scale area averages (pixel) are compared to small-scale point estimates. We demonstrate our approach by comparing simulated values of aboveground biomass, woody productivity (woody net primary productivity, NPP) and residence time of woody biomass from four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) with measured inventory data from permanent plots in the Amazon rainforest, a region with the typical problem of low data availability, potential scale mismatch and thus high model uncertainty. We find that the DGVMs under- and overestimate aboveground biomass by 25% and up to 60%, respectively. Our comparison metrics provide a quantitative measure for model-data agreement and show moderate to good agreement with the region-wide spatial biomass pattern detected by plot observations. However, all four DGVMs overestimate woody productivity and underestimate residence time of woody biomass even when accounting for the large uncertainty range of the observational data. This is because DGVMs do not represent the relation between productivity and residence time of woody biomass correctly. Thus, the DGVMs may simulate the correct large-scale patterns of biomass but for the wrong reasons. We conclude that more information about the underlying processes driving biomass distribution are necessary to improve DGVMs. Our approach provides robust statistical measures for any pixel-to-point comparison, which is applicable for evaluation of models and remote-sensing products.
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    Late Pleistocene paleosol formation in a dynamic aggradational microenvironment - A case study from the Malá nad Hronom loess succession (Slovakia)
    (New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Bradák, B.; Csonka, D.; Novothny, Á.; Szeberényi, J.; Medveďová, A.; Rostinsky, P.; Fehér, K.; Barta, G.; Végh, T.; Kiss, K.; Megyeri, M.
    The geomorphological characteristics of the loess succession at Malá nad Hronom (Slovakia) mean that it provides a valuable opportunity for the investigation of differences in soil formation in various topographic positions. Along with the semiquantitative characterization of the paleosols (on the basis of physical properties, texture, the characteristics of peds, clay films, horizon boundaries), high-resolution field magnetic susceptibility measurements and sampling were carried out along four different sections of the profile. Samples for luminescence dating were also taken, in order to establish the chronostratigraphical position of the paleosols studied. The comparison of various proxies revealed the differences in soil formation in a dynamic aggradational microenvironment for the same paleosol horizons located in various positions along the slope. Contrary to expectation, paleosols developed in local top or slope topographical positions did not display significant differences in e.g. in their degree of development, nor the characteristics of their magnetic susceptibility curves. In the case of paleosols in positions lower down the slope, signs of quasi-permanent sediment input could be recognized as being present as early as during the formation of the soil itself. This sediment input would seem to be surpassed in the case of pedogenesis strengthened by the climate of the last interglacial (marine isotope stage - MIS 5). Pedogenesis seems to be sustained by renewed intense dust accumulation in the Late Pleistocene, in MIS 3, though compared to MIS 5, the climate of MIS 3 did not favor intense pedogenesis. Despite the general belief that loess series formed in plateau positions can preserve terrestrial records without significant erosion, in the case of the Malá nad Hronom loess this is not so. Compared to the sequence affected by erosional events in the local top position, the sequence affected by quasi-continuous sediment input in the lower slope position seems to have preserved the soil horizons intact. © 2020 The Author(s)