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    Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global burned area and fire regimes
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W.M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.
    Fire is an important global ecological process that influences the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. Therefore it is impossible to appropriately model the history and future of the terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system without including fire. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate burned area over the 20th century. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of other fire regime indicators such as seasonality, fire size and fire length, next to burned area. For 2001–2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire agrees well with that given by satellite-derived burned area data sets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1), and 76–92% of the global burned area is simulated as collocated between the model and observation, depending on which data set is used for comparison. The simulated global mean annual burned area is 346 Mha yr−1, which falls within the range of 287–384 Mha yr−1 as given by the three observation data sets; and is close to the 344 Mha yr−1 by the GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trend and variation of burned area agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1930–2009), along with Canada and US Alaska (1950–2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire variation over the 20th century is only in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is underestimated by the model for the regions of high fire frequency, compared with fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m burned area data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in Canada and US Alaska, and southern Africa indicate that both number and size of large fires are underestimated, which could be related with short fire patch length and low daily fire size. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation data sets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.
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    Complex refractive indices of Saharan dust samples at visible and near UV wavelengths: A laboratory study
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Wagner, R.; Ajtai, T.; Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Linke, C.; Müller, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Vragel, M.
    We have retrieved the wavelength-dependent imaginary parts of the complex refractive index for five different Saharan dust aerosol particles of variable mineralogical composition at wavelengths between 305 and 955 nm. The dust particles were generated by dispersing soil samples into a laboratory aerosol chamber, typically yielding particle sizes with mean diameters ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 μm and maximum diameters from 2 to 4 μm. The extinction and absorption coefficients as well as the number size distribution of the dust particles were simultaneously measured by various established techniques. An inversion scheme based on a spheroidal dust model was employed to deduce the refractive indices. The retrieved imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were in the range from 0.003 to 0.005, 0.005 to 0.011, and 0.016 to 0.050 at the wavelengths 955, 505, and 305 nm. The hematite content of the dust particles was determined by electron-microscopical single particle analysis. Hematite volume fractions in the range from 1.1 to 2.7% were found for the different dusts, a range typical for atmospheric mineral dust. We have performed a sensitivity study to assess how accurately the retrieved imaginary refractive indices could be reproduced by calculations with mixing rule approximations using the experimentally determined hematite contents as input.
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    Optical properties of long-range transported Saharan dust over Barbados as measured by dual-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Schepanski, K.; Toledano, C.; Schäfler, A.; Ansmann, A.; Weinzierl, B.
    Dual-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar observations were performed during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud interaction Experiment in Barbados in June and July 2013 to characterize the optical properties and vertical distribution of long-range transported Saharan dust after transport across the Atlantic Ocean. Four major dust events were studied during the measurements from 15 June to 13 July 2013 with aerosol optical depths at 532 nm of up to 0.6. The vertical aerosol distribution was characterized by a three-layer structure consisting of the boundary layer, the entrainment or mixing layer and the pure Saharan dust layer. The upper boundary of the pure dust layer reached up to 4.5 km in height. The contribution of the pure dust layer was about half of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The total dust contribution was about 50–70 % of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The lidar ratio within the pure dust layer was found to be wavelength independent with mean values of 53 ± 5 sr at 355 nm and 56 ± 7 sr at 532 nm. For the particle linear depolarization ratio, wavelength-independent mean values of 0.26 ± 0.03 at 355 nm and 0.27 ± 0.01 at 532 nm have been found.
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    Observation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities and gravity waves in the summer mesopause above Andenes in Northern Norway
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2018) Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Schult, Carsten; Latteck, Ralph; Chau, Jorge L.
    We present observations obtained with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) to investigate short-period wave-like features using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) as a tracer for the neutral dynamics. We conducted a multibeam experiment including 67 different beam directions during a 9-day campaign in June 2013. We identified two Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) events from the signal morphology of PMSE. The MAARSY observations are complemented by collocated meteor radar wind data to determine the mesoscale gravity wave activity and the vertical structure of the wind field above the PMSE. The KHIs occurred in a strong shear flow with Richardson numbers Ri <0.25. In addition, we observed 15 wave-like events in our MAARSY multibeam observations applying a sophisticated decomposition of the radial velocity measurements using volume velocity processing. We retrieved the horizontal wavelength, intrinsic frequency, propagation direction, and phase speed from the horizontally resolved wind variability for 15 events. These events showed horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 40km, vertical wavelengths between 5 and 10km, and rather high intrinsic phase speeds between 45 and 85ms−1 with intrinsic periods of 5–10min.
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    Cloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) van Pinxteren, Dominik; Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Mertes, Stephan; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Schneider, Johannes; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Herrmann, Hartmut
    Cloud water samples were taken in September/October 2010 at Mt. Schmücke in a rural, forested area in Germany during the Lagrange-type Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010) cloud experiment. Besides bulk collectors, a three-stage and a five-stage collector were applied and samples were analysed for inorganic ions (SO42−,NO3−, NH4+, Cl−, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), H2O2 (aq), S(IV), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Campaign volume-weighted mean concentrations were 191, 142, and 39 µmol L−1 for ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate respectively, between 4 and 27 µmol L−1 for minor ions, 5.4 µmol L−1 for H2O2 (aq), 1.9 µmol L−1 for S(IV), and 3.9 mgC L−1 for DOC. The concentrations compare well to more recent European cloud water data from similar sites. On a mass basis, organic material (as DOC × 1.8) contributed 20–40 % (event means) to total solute concentrations and was found to have non-negligible impact on cloud water acidity. Relative standard deviations of major ions were 60–66 % for solute concentrations and 52–80 % for cloud water loadings (CWLs). The similar variability of solute concentrations and CWLs together with the results of back-trajectory analysis and principal component analysis, suggests that concentrations in incoming air masses (i.e. air mass history), rather than cloud liquid water content (LWC), were the main factor controlling bulk solute concentrations for the cloud studied. Droplet effective radius was found to be a somewhat better predictor for cloud water total ionic content (TIC) than LWC, even though no single explanatory variable can fully describe TIC (or solute concentration) variations in a simple functional relation due to the complex processes involved. Bulk concentrations typically agreed within a factor of 2 with co-located measurements of residual particle concentrations sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) and analysed by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), with the deviations being mainly caused by systematic differences and limitations of the approaches (such as outgassing of dissolved gases during residual particle sampling). Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) of aerosol constituents were 0.56–0.94, 0.79–0.99, 0.71–98, and 0.67–0.92 for SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, and DOC respectively when calculated as event means with in-cloud data only. SEs estimated using data from an upwind site were substantially different in many cases, revealing the impact of gas-phase uptake (for volatile constituents) and mass losses across Mt. Schmücke likely due to physical processes such as droplet scavenging by trees and/or entrainment. Drop size-resolved cloud water concentrations of major ions SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ revealed two main profiles: decreasing concentrations with increasing droplet size and “U” shapes. In contrast, profiles of typical coarse particle mode minor ions were often increasing with increasing drop size, highlighting the importance of a species' particle concentration size distribution for the development of size-resolved solute concentration patterns. Concentration differences between droplet size classes were typically < 2 for major ions from the three-stage collector and somewhat more pronounced from the five-stage collector, while they were much larger for minor ions. Due to a better separation of droplet populations, the five-stage collector was capable of resolving some features of solute size dependencies not seen in the three-stage data, especially sharp concentration increases (up to a factor of 5–10) in the smallest droplets for many solutes.
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    Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: A review
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Brüggemann, N.; Gessler, A.; Kayler, Z.; Keel, S.G.; Badeck, F.; Barthel, M.; Boeckx, P.; Buchmann, N.; Brugnoli, E.; Esperschütz, J.; Gavrichkova, O.; Ghashghaie, J.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Keitel, C.; Knohl, A.; Kuptz, D.; Palacio, S.; Salmon, Y.; Uchida, Y.; Bahn, M.
    The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has received increasing interest over the past few decades, however, there is still a lack of understanding of the fate of newly assimilated C allocated within plants and to the soil, stored within ecosystems and lost to the atmosphere. Stable carbon isotope studies can give novel insights into these issues. In this review we provide an overview of an emerging picture of plant-soil-atmosphere C fluxes, as based on C isotope studies, and identify processes determining related C isotope signatures. The first part of the review focuses on isotopic fractionation processes within plants during and after photosynthesis. The second major part elaborates on plant-internal and plant-rhizosphere C allocation patterns at different time scales (diel, seasonal, interannual), including the speed of C transfer and time lags in the coupling of assimilation and respiration, as well as the magnitude and controls of plant-soil C allocation and respiratory fluxes. Plant responses to changing environmental conditions, the functional relationship between the physiological and phenological status of plants and C transfer, and interactions between C, water and nutrient dynamics are discussed. The role of the C counterflow from the rhizosphere to the aboveground parts of the plants, e.g. via CO2 dissolved in the xylem water or as xylem-transported sugars, is highlighted. The third part is centered around belowground C turnover, focusing especially on above- and belowground litter inputs, soil organic matter formation and turnover, production and loss of dissolved organic C, soil respiration and CO2 fixation by soil microbes. Furthermore, plant controls on microbial communities and activity via exudates and litter production as well as microbial community effects on C mineralization are reviewed. A further part of the paper is dedicated to physical interactions between soil CO2 and the soil matrix, such as CO2 diffusion and dissolution processes within the soil profile. Finally, we highlight state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies and their latest developments. From the presented evidence we conclude that there exists a tight coupling of physical, chemical and biological processes involved in C cycling and C isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere system. Generally, research using information from C isotopes allows an integrated view of the different processes involved. However, complex interactions among the range of processes complicate or currently impede the interpretation of isotopic signals in CO2 or organic compounds at the plant and ecosystem level. This review tries to identify present knowledge gaps in correctly interpreting carbon stable isotope signals in the plant-soil-atmosphere system and how future research approaches could contribute to closing these gaps.
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    Intercomparison of air ion spectrometers: An evaluation of results in varying conditions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Gagné, S.; Lehtipalo, K.; Manninen, H.E.; Nieminen, T.; Schobesberger, S.; Franchin, A.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Boulon, J.; Sonntag, A.; Mirme, S.; Mirme, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Petäjä, T.; Asmi, E.; Kulmala, M.
    We evaluated 11 air ion spectrometers from Airel Ltd. after they had spent one year in field measurements as a part of the EUCAARI project: 5 Air Ion Spectrometers (AIS), 5 Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometers (NAIS) and one Airborne NAIS (ANAIS). This is the first time that an ANAIS is evaluated and compared so extensively. The ion spectrometers' mobility and concentration accuracy was evaluated. Their measurements of ambient air were compared between themselves and to reference instruments: a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), a Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzer (BSMA), and an Ion-DMPS. We report on the simultaneous measurement of a new particle formation (NPF) event by all 11 instruments and the 3 reference instruments. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the size distribution of ions and particles is measured by so many ion spectrometers during a NPF event. The new particle formation rates (~0.2 cm−3 s−1 for ions and ~2 cm−3 s−1 for particles) and growth rates (~25 nm h−1 in the 3–7 nm size range) were calculated for all the instruments. The NAISs and the ANAIS gave higher concentrations and formation rates than the AISs. For example, the AISs agreed with the BSMA within 11 % and 28 % for negative and positive ion concentration respectively, whereas the NAISs agreed within 23 % and 29 %. Finally, based on the results presented here, we give guidelines for data evaluation, when data from different individual ion spectrometers are compared.
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    The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) for CMIP6
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hurtt, George; Knutti, Reto; Kriegler, Elmar; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lowe, Jason; Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard; Riahi, Keywan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.
    Projections of future climate change play a fundamental role in improving understanding of the climate system as well as characterizing societal risks and response options. The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) is the primary activity within Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) that will provide multi-model climate projections based on alternative scenarios of future emissions and land use changes produced with integrated assessment models. In this paper, we describe ScenarioMIP's objectives, experimental design, and its relation to other activities within CMIP6. The ScenarioMIP design is one component of a larger scenario process that aims to facilitate a wide range of integrated studies across the climate science, integrated assessment modeling, and impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability communities, and will form an important part of the evidence base in the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments. At the same time, it will provide the basis for investigating a number of targeted science and policy questions that are especially relevant to scenario-based analysis, including the role of specific forcings such as land use and aerosols, the effect of a peak and decline in forcing, the consequences of scenarios that limit warming to below 2°C, the relative contributions to uncertainty from scenarios, climate models, and internal variability, and long-term climate system outcomes beyond the 21st century. To serve this wide range of scientific communities and address these questions, a design has been identified consisting of eight alternative 21st century scenarios plus one large initial condition ensemble and a set of long-term extensions, divided into two tiers defined by relative priority. Some of these scenarios will also provide a basis for variants planned to be run in other CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs to investigate questions related to specific forcings. Harmonized, spatially explicit emissions and land use scenarios generated with integrated assessment models will be provided to participating climate modeling groups by late 2016, with the climate model simulations run within the 2017–2018 time frame, and output from the climate model projections made available and analyses performed over the 2018–2020 period.
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    Simultaneous lidar observations of temperatures and waves in the polar middle atmosphere on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountains: A case study on 19/20 January 2003
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2004) Blum, U.; Fricke, K.H.; Baumgarten, G.; Schöch, A.
    Atmospheric gravity waves have been the subject of intense research for several decades because of their extensive effects on the atmospheric circulation and the temperature structure. The U. Bonn lidar at the Esrange and the ALOMAR RMR lidar at the Andøya Rocket Range are located in northern Scandinavia 250 km apart on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. During January and February 2003 both lidar systems conducted measurements and retrieved atmospheric temperatures. On 19/20 January 2003 simultaneous measurements for more than 7 h were possible. Although during most of the campaign time the atmosphere was not transparent for the propagation of orographically induced gravity waves, they were nevertheless observed at both lidar stations with considerable amplitudes during these simultaneous measurements. And while the source of the observed waves cannot be determined unambiguously, the observations show many characteristics of orographically excited gravity waves. The wave patterns at ALOMAR show a random distribution with time whereas at the Esrange a persistency in the wave patterns is observable. This persistency can also be found in the distribution of the most powerful vertical wavelengths. The mode values are both at about 5 km vertical wavelength, however the distributions are quite different, narrow at the Esrange with values from λz=2–6 km and broad at ALOMAR, covering λz=1–12 km vertical wavelength. In particular the difference between the observations at ALOMAR and at the Esrange can be understood by different orographic conditions while the propagation conditions were quite similar. At both stations the waves deposit energy in the atmosphere with increasing altitude, which leads to a decrease of the observed gravity wave potential energy density with altitude. The meteorological situation during these measurements was different from common winter situations. The ground winds were mostly northerlies, changed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to westerlies and returned to northerlies in the middle stratosphere.
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    Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol - Part 2: Theoretical approaches
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Wex, H.; Petters, M.D.; Carrico, C.M.; Hallbauer, E.; Massling, A.; McMeeking, G.R.; Poulain, L.; Wu, Z.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Stratmann, F.
    We examine the hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol particles generated through the reaction of α-pinene and ozone using a continuous flow reaction chamber. The water activity versus composition relationship is calculated from measurements of growth factors at relative humidities up to 99.6% and from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity. The observed relationships are complex, suggesting highly non-ideal behavior for aerosol water contents at relative humidities less than 98%. We present two models that may explain the observed water activity-composition relationship equally well. The first model assumes that the aerosol is a pseudo binary mixture of infinitely water soluble compounds and sparingly soluble compounds that gradually enter the solution as dilution increases. The second model is used to compute the Gibbs free energy of the aerosol-water mixture and shows that the aerosol behaves similarly to what can be expected for single compounds that contain a certain fraction of oxygenated and non-polar functional groups.