Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Item
    Multidecadal trend analysis of in situ aerosol radiative properties around the world
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Collaud Coen, Martine; Andrews, Elisabeth; Alastuey, Andrés; Petkov Arsov, Todor; Backman, John; Brem, Benjamin T.; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Couret, Cédric; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Flentje, Harald; Fiebig, Markus; Gysel-Beer, Martin; Hand, Jenny L.; Hoffer, András; Hooda, Rakesh; Hueglin, Christoph; Joubert, Warren; Keywood, Melita; Eun Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Labuschagne, Casper; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Yong; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Luoma, Krista; Lyamani, Hassan; Marinoni, Angela; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Pandolfi, Marco; Prats, Natalia; Prenni, Anthony J.; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ries, Ludwig; Reisen, Fabienne; Sellegri, Karine; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sheridan, Patrick; Sherman, James Patrick; Sun, Junying; Titos, Gloria; Torres, Elvis; Tuch, Thomas; Weller, Rolf; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Zieger, Paul; Laj, Paolo
    In order to assess the evolution of aerosol parameters affecting climate change, a long-term trend analysis of aerosol optical properties was performed on time series from 52 stations situated across five continents. The time series of measured scattering, backscattering and absorption coefficients as well as the derived single scattering albedo, backscattering fraction, scattering and absorption Ångström exponents covered at least 10 years and up to 40 years for some stations. The non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test associated with several pre-whitening methods and with Sen's slope was used as the main trend analysis method. Comparisons with general least mean square associated with autoregressive bootstrap (GLS/ARB) and with standard least mean square analysis (LMS) enabled confirmation of the detected MK statistically significant trends and the assessment of advantages and limitations of each method. Currently, scattering and backscattering coefficient trends are mostly decreasing in Europe and North America and are not statistically significant in Asia, while polar stations exhibit a mix of increasing and decreasing trends. A few increasing trends are also found at some stations in North America and Australia. Absorption coefficient time series also exhibit primarily decreasing trends. For single scattering albedo, 52 % of the sites exhibit statistically significant positive trends, mostly in Asia, eastern/northern Europe and the Arctic, 22 % of sites exhibit statistically significant negative trends, mostly in central Europe and central North America, while the remaining 26 % of sites have trends which are not statistically significant. In addition to evaluating trends for the overall time series, the evolution of the trends in sequential 10-year segments was also analyzed. For scattering and backscattering, statistically significant increasing 10-year trends are primarily found for earlier periods (10-year trends ending in 2010-2015) for polar stations and Mauna Loa. For most of the stations, the present-day statistically significant decreasing 10-year trends of the single scattering albedo were preceded by not statistically significant and statistically significant increasing 10-year trends. The effect of air pollution abatement policies in continental North America is very obvious in the 10-year trends of the scattering coefficient - there is a shift to statistically significant negative trends in 2009-2012 for all stations in the eastern and central USA. This long-term trend analysis of aerosol radiative properties with a broad spatial coverage provides insight into potential aerosol effects on climate changes. © 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry. All rights reserved.
  • Item
    Large difference in aerosol radiative effects from BVOC-SOA treatment in three Earth system models
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Sporre, Moa K.; Blichner, Sara M.; Schrödner, Roland; Karset, Inger H.H.; Berntsen, Terje K.; van Noije, Twan; Bergman, Tommi; O’Donnell, Declan; Makkonen, Risto
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation are oxidised in the atmosphere and can form aerosol particles either by contributing to new particle formation or by condensing onto existing aerosol particles. As the understanding of the importance of BVOCs for aerosol formation has increased over the years, these processes have made their way into Earth system models (ESMs). In this study, sensitivity experiments are run with three different ESMs (the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), EC-Earth and ECHAM) to investigate how the direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects are affected by changes in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from BVOCs. In the first two sensitivity model experiments, the yields of SOA precursors from oxidation of BVOCs are changed by ±50 %. For the third sensitivity test, the formed oxidation products do not participate in the formation of new particles but are only allowed to condense onto existing aerosols. In the last two sensitivity experiments, the emissions of BVOC compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes) are turned off, one at a time. The goal of the study is to investigate whether it is of importance to treat SOA formation processes correctly in the models rather than to evaluate the correctness of the current treatment in the models.

    The results show that the impact on the direct radiative effect (DRE) is linked to the changes in the SOA production in the models, where more SOA leads to a stronger DRE and vice versa. However, the magnitude by which the DRE changes (maximally 0.15 W m-2 globally averaged) in response to the SOA changes varies between the models, with EC-Earth displaying the largest changes. The results for the cloud radiative effects (CREs) are more complicated than for the DRE. The changes in CRE differ more among the ESMs, and for some sensitivity experiments they even have different signs. The most sensitive models are NorESM and EC-Earth, which have CRE changes of up to 0.82 W m-2. The varying responses in the different models are connected to where in the aerosol size distributions the changes in mass and number due to SOA formation occur, in combination with the aerosol number concentration levels in the models. We also find that interactive gas-phase chemistry as well as the new particle formation parameterisation has important implications for the DRE and CRE in some of the sensitivity experiments. The results from this study indicate that BVOC-SOA treatment in ESMs can have a substantial impact on the modelled climate but that the sensitivity varies greatly between the models. Since BVOC emissions have changed historically and will continue to change in the future, the spread in model results found in this study implies uncertainty into ESM estimates of aerosol forcing from land-use change and BVOC feedback strengths. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Item
    Optical and geometrical aerosol particle properties over the United Arab Emirates
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Filioglou, Maria; Giannakaki, Elina; Backman, John; Kesti, Jutta; Hirsikko, Anne; Engelmann, Ronny; O’Connor, Ewan; Leskinen, Jari T.T.; Shang, Xiaoxia; Korhonen, Hannele; Lihavainen, Heikki; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Komppula, Mika
    One year of ground-based night-time Raman lidar observations has been analysed under the Optimization of Aerosol Seeding In rain enhancement Strategies (OASIS) project, in order to characterize the aerosol particle properties over a rural site in the United Arab Emirates. In total, 1130 aerosol particle layers were detected during the 1-year measurement campaign which took place between March 2018 and February 2019. Several subsequent aerosol layers could be observed simultaneously in the atmosphere up to 11 km. The observations indicate that the measurement site is a receptor of frequent dust events, but predominantly the dust is mixed with aerosols of anthropogenic and/or marine origin. The mean aerosol optical depth over the measurement site ranged at 0.37±0.12 and 0.21±0.11 for 355 and 532 nm, respectively. Moreover, mean lidar ratios of 43±11 sr at a wavelength of 355 nm and 39±10 sr at 532 nm were found. The average linear particle depolarization ratio measured over the course of the campaign was 15±6% and 19±7% at the 355 and 532 nm wavelengths, respectively. Since the region is both a source and a receptor of mineral dust, we have also explored the properties of Arabian mineral dust of the greater area of the United Arab of Emirates and the Arabian Peninsula. The observed Arabian dust particle properties were 45±5 (42±5) sr at 355 (532) nm for the lidar ratio, 25±2% (31±2 %) for the linear particle depolarization ratio at 355 (532) nm, and 0.3±0.2 (0.2±0.2) for the extinction-related Angstrom exponent (backscatterrelated Angstrom exponent) between 355 and 532 nm. This study is the first to report comprehensive optical properties of the Arabian dust particles based on 1-year long observations, using to their fullest the capabilities of a multi-wavelength Raman lidar instrument. The results suggest that the mineral dust properties over the Middle East and western Asia, including the observation site, are comparable to those of African mineral dust with regard to the particle depolarization ratios, but not for lidar ratios. The smaller lidar ratio values in this study compared to the reference studies are attributed to the difference in the geochemical characteristics of the soil originating in the study region compared to northern Africa. © 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry. All rights reserved.
  • Item
    Estimation of cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations and comparison to in situ and lidar observations during the HOPE experiments
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Genz, Christa; Schrödner, Roland; Heinold, Bernd; Henning, Silvia; Baars, Holger; Spindler, Gerald; Tegen, Ina
    Atmospheric aerosol particles are the precondition for the formation of cloud droplets and therefore have large influence on the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds. In this work, four different methods to derive or measure number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were analyzed and compared for presentday aerosol conditions: (i) a model parameterization based on simulated particle concentrations, (ii) the same parameterization based on gravimetrical particle measurements, (iii) direct CCN measurements with a CCN counter, and (iv) lidarderived and in situ measured vertical CCN profiles. In order to allow for sensitivity studies of the anthropogenic impact, a scenario to estimate the maximum CCN concentration under peak aerosol conditions of the mid-1980s in Europe was developed as well. In general, the simulations are in good agreement with the observations. At ground level, average values between 0.7 and 1:5 × 109 CCNm-3 at a supersaturation of 0.2 % were found with the different methods under present-day conditions. The discrimination of the chemical species revealed an almost equal contribution of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate to the total number of CCN for present-day conditions. This was not the case for the peak aerosol scenario, in which it was assumed that no ammonium nitrate was formed while large amounts of sulfate were present, consuming all available ammonia during ammonium sulfate formation. The CCN number concentration at five different supersaturation values has been compared to the measurements. The discrepancies between model and in situ observations were lowest for the lowest (0.1 %) and highest supersaturations (0.7 %). For supersaturations between 0.3 % and 0.5 %, the model overestimated the potentially activated particle fraction by around 30 %. By comparing the simulation with observed profiles, the vertical distribution of the CCN concentration was found to be overestimated by up to a factor of 2 in the boundary layer. The analysis of the modern (year 2013) and the peak aerosol scenario (expected to be representative of the mid-1980s over Europe) resulted in a scaling factor, which was defined as the quotient of the average vertical profile of the peak aerosol and present-day CCN concentration. This factor was found to be around 2 close to the ground, increasing to around 3.5 between 2 and 5 km and approaching 1 (i.e., no difference between present-day and peak aerosol conditions) with further increasing height. © 2020 Author(s).
  • Item
    Overview: Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) – concept and initial results
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Petäjä, Tuukka; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Tabakova, Ksenia; Schmale, Julia; Altstädter, Barbara; Ancellet, Gerard; Arshinov, Mikhail; Balin, Yurii; Baltensperger, Urs; Bange, Jens; Beamish, Alison; Belan, Boris; Berchet, Antoine; Bossi, Rossana; Cairns, Warren R.L.; Ebinghaus, Ralf; El Haddad, Imad; Ferreira-Araujo, Beatriz; Franck, Anna; Huang, Lin; Hyvärinen, Antti; Humbert, Angelika; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Konstantinov, Pavel; Lampert, Astrid; MacLeod, Matthew; Magand, Olivier; Mahura, Alexander; Marelle, Louis; Masloboev, Vladimir; Moisseev, Dmitri; Moschos, Vaios; Neckel, Niklas; Onishi, Tatsuo; Osterwalder, Stefan; Ovaska, Aino; Paasonen, Pauli; Panchenko, Mikhail; Pankratov, Fidel; Pernov, Jakob B.; Platis, Andreas; Popovicheva, Olga; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riandet, Aurélie; Sachs, Torsten; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Schröder, Ludwig; Schön, Martin; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Skov, Henrik; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Spolaor, Andrea; Stathopoulos, Vasileios K.; Strahlendorff, Mikko; Thomas, Jennie L.; Vitale, Vito; Vratolis, Sterios; Barbante, Carlo; Chabrillat, Sabine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Heilimo, Jyri; Law, Kathy S.; Massling, Andreas; Noe, Steffen M.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Prévôt, André S.H.; Riipinen, Ilona; Wehner, Birgit; Xie, Zhiyong; Lappalainen, Hanna K.
    The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. We set up the ERA-PLANET Strand 4 project “iCUPE – integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments” to provide novel insights and observational data on global grand challenges with an Arctic focus. We utilize an integrated approach combining in situ observations, satellite remote sensing Earth observations (EOs), and multi-scale modeling to synthesize data from comprehensive long-term measurements, intensive campaigns, and satellites to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators to stakeholders concerning the environmental status, availability, and extraction of natural resources in the polar areas. The iCUPE work consists of thematic state-of-the-art research and the provision of novel data in atmospheric pollution, local sources and transboundary transport, the characterization of arctic surfaces and their changes, an assessment of the concentrations and impacts of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and their cycling, the quantification of emissions from natural resource extraction, and the validation and optimization of satellite Earth observation (EO) data streams. In this paper we introduce the iCUPE project and summarize initial results arising out of the integration of comprehensive in situ observations, satellite remote sensing, and multi-scale modeling in the Arctic context.