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    Observation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities and gravity waves in the summer mesopause above Andenes in Northern Norway
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2018) Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Schult, Carsten; Latteck, Ralph; Chau, Jorge L.
    We present observations obtained with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) to investigate short-period wave-like features using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) as a tracer for the neutral dynamics. We conducted a multibeam experiment including 67 different beam directions during a 9-day campaign in June 2013. We identified two Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) events from the signal morphology of PMSE. The MAARSY observations are complemented by collocated meteor radar wind data to determine the mesoscale gravity wave activity and the vertical structure of the wind field above the PMSE. The KHIs occurred in a strong shear flow with Richardson numbers Ri <0.25. In addition, we observed 15 wave-like events in our MAARSY multibeam observations applying a sophisticated decomposition of the radial velocity measurements using volume velocity processing. We retrieved the horizontal wavelength, intrinsic frequency, propagation direction, and phase speed from the horizontally resolved wind variability for 15 events. These events showed horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 40km, vertical wavelengths between 5 and 10km, and rather high intrinsic phase speeds between 45 and 85ms−1 with intrinsic periods of 5–10min.
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    Simultaneous lidar observations of temperatures and waves in the polar middle atmosphere on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountains: A case study on 19/20 January 2003
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2004) Blum, U.; Fricke, K.H.; Baumgarten, G.; Schöch, A.
    Atmospheric gravity waves have been the subject of intense research for several decades because of their extensive effects on the atmospheric circulation and the temperature structure. The U. Bonn lidar at the Esrange and the ALOMAR RMR lidar at the Andøya Rocket Range are located in northern Scandinavia 250 km apart on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. During January and February 2003 both lidar systems conducted measurements and retrieved atmospheric temperatures. On 19/20 January 2003 simultaneous measurements for more than 7 h were possible. Although during most of the campaign time the atmosphere was not transparent for the propagation of orographically induced gravity waves, they were nevertheless observed at both lidar stations with considerable amplitudes during these simultaneous measurements. And while the source of the observed waves cannot be determined unambiguously, the observations show many characteristics of orographically excited gravity waves. The wave patterns at ALOMAR show a random distribution with time whereas at the Esrange a persistency in the wave patterns is observable. This persistency can also be found in the distribution of the most powerful vertical wavelengths. The mode values are both at about 5 km vertical wavelength, however the distributions are quite different, narrow at the Esrange with values from λz=2–6 km and broad at ALOMAR, covering λz=1–12 km vertical wavelength. In particular the difference between the observations at ALOMAR and at the Esrange can be understood by different orographic conditions while the propagation conditions were quite similar. At both stations the waves deposit energy in the atmosphere with increasing altitude, which leads to a decrease of the observed gravity wave potential energy density with altitude. The meteorological situation during these measurements was different from common winter situations. The ground winds were mostly northerlies, changed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to westerlies and returned to northerlies in the middle stratosphere.
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    NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018-1-29) Sinnhuber, Miriam; Berger, Uwe; Funke, Bernd; Nieder, Holger; Reddmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Wissing, Jan Maik
    We analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the stratospheric nitrogen budget, ozone abundances and net radiative heating using results from three global chemistry-climate models considering solar protons and geomagnetic forcing due to auroral or radiation belt electrons. Two of the models cover the atmosphere up to the lower thermosphere, the source region of auroral NO production. Geomagnetic forcing in these models is included by prescribed ionization rates. One model reaches up to about 80 km, and geomagnetic forcing is included by applying an upper boundary condition of auroral NO mixing ratios parameterized as a function of geomagnetic activity. Despite the differences in the implementation of the particle effect, the resulting modeled NOy in the upper mesosphere agrees well between all three models, demonstrating that geomagnetic forcing is represented in a consistent way either by prescribing ionization rates or by prescribing NOy at the model top. Compared with observations of stratospheric and mesospheric NOy from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument for the years 2002–2010, the model simulations reproduce the spatial pattern and temporal evolution well. However, after strong sudden stratospheric warmings, particle-induced NOy is underestimated by both high-top models, and after the solar proton event in October 2003, NOy is overestimated by all three models. Model results indicate that the large solar proton event in October 2003 contributed about 1–2 Gmol (109 mol) NOy per hemisphere to the stratospheric NOy budget, while downwelling of auroral NOx from the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere contributes up to 4 Gmol NOy. Accumulation over time leads to a constant particle-induced background of about 0.5–1 Gmol per hemisphere during solar minimum, and up to 2 Gmol per hemisphere during solar maximum. Related negative anomalies of ozone are predicted by the models in nearly every polar winter, ranging from 10–50 % during solar maximum to 2–10 % during solar minimum. Ozone loss continues throughout polar summer after strong solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere and after large sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. During mid-winter, the ozone loss causes a reduction of the infrared radiative cooling, i.e., a positive change of the net radiative heating (effective warming), in agreement with analyses of geomagnetic forcing in stratospheric temperatures which show a warming in the late winter upper stratosphere. In late winter and spring, the sign of the net radiative heating change turns to negative (effective cooling). This spring-time cooling lasts well into summer and continues until the following autumn after large solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere, and after sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere.
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    Long‐Term Changes in the Northern Midwinter Middle Atmosphere in Relation to the Quasi‐Biennial Oscillation
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2019) Gabriel, A.
    Long-term changes in the middle atmosphere due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are examined in relation to the effect of the equatorial Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) on the northern midwinter circulation. The examinations are based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations for 1979–2100 with the Earth-System-Model MPI-ESM-MR that generates the QBO internally. In particular, the three-dimensional residual circulation is used as proxy for the Brewer-Dobson circulation, revealing an increasing downwelling in the center of the polar low over Northern Europe/Siberia (~5% per decade). The changes in northern midwinter temperature, zonal wind, and residual circulation are much stronger during westerly (QBO-W) than easterly (QBO-E) phase of QBO (e.g., for a moderate increase in greenhouse gases, we find maximum decreases in the zonal mean westerly jet at 60°N and 3 hPa of about −14.8 ± 5.4 m/s for QBO-W but only −4.7 ± 5.2 m/s for QBO-E). This is due to a change of the extratropical QBO-W signature toward QBO-E signature while the equatorial QBO remains nearly unchanged (i.e., a change toward disappearance of the so-called Holton-Tan relationship). Similar to the current change from QBO-W to QBO-E signature, the changes during QBO-W include an increase in amplitude and eastward shift in phase of stratospheric stationary Wave 1 at the cost of Wave 2, with decreasing westerlies over North America and increasing downwelling over Siberia. The eastward shift in phase of stationary Wave 1 is related to the associated increase in meridional transport of planetary vorticity. © 2019. The Authors.
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    Validation of the radiation pattern of the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY)
    (Göttingen : Copernicus, 2012) Renkwitz, T.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Stober, G.; Rapp, M.
    In 2009/2010 the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) installed a new powerful VHF radar on the island Andøya in Northern Norway (69.30 N, 16.04 E). The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) allows studies with high spatial and temporal resolution in the troposphere/lower stratosphere and in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere of the Arctic atmosphere. The monostatic radar is operated at 53.5 MHz with an active phased array antenna consisting of 433 Yagi antennas. Each individual antenna is connected to its own transceiver with independent phase control and a scalable power output of up to 2 kW, which implies high flexibility of beam forming and beam steering. During the design phase of MAARSY several model studies have been carried out in order to estimate the radiation pattern for various combinations of beam forming and steering. However, parameters like mutual coupling, active impedance and ground parameters have an impact on the radiation pattern, but can hardly be measured. Hence, experiments need to be designed to verify the model results. For this purpose, the radar has occasionally been used in passive mode, monitoring the noise power received from both distinct cosmic noise sources like e.g. Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A, and the diffuse cosmic background noise. The analysis of the collected dataset enables us to verify beam forming and steering attempts. These results document the current status of the radar during its development and provide valuable information for further improvement.
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    Small scale density variations of electrons and charged particles in the vicinity of polar mesosphere summer echoes
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2003) Rapp, M.; Lübken, F.-J.; Blix, T.A.
    We present small scale variations of electron number densities and particle charge number densities measured in situ in the presence of polar mesosphere summer echoes. It turns out that the small scale fluctuations of electrons and negatively charged particles show a strong anticorrelation down to the smallest scales observed. Comparing these small scale structures with the simultaneously measured radar signal to noise profile, we find that the radar profile is well described by the power spectral density of both electrons and charged particles at the radar half wavelength (=the Bragg scale). Finally, we consider the shape of the power spectra of the observed plasma fluctuations and find that both charged particles and electrons show spectra that can be explained in terms of either neutral air turbulence acting on the distribution of a low diffusivity tracer or the fossil remnants of a formerly active turbulent region. All these results are consistent with the theoretical ideas by Rapp and Lübken (2003) suggesting that PMSE can be explained by a combination of active and fossil neutral air turbulence acting on the large and heavy charged aerosol particles which are subsequently mirrored in the electron number density distribution that becomes visible to a VHF radar when small scale fluctuations are present.
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    Global observations of 2 day wave coupling to the diurnal tide in a high‐altitude forecast‐assimilation system
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2017-4-18) Lieberman, R.S.; Riggin, D.M.; Nguyen, V.; Palo, S.E.; Siskind, D.E.; Mitchell, N.J.; Stober, G.; Wilhelm, S.; Livesey, N.J.
    We examine wave components in a high-altitude forecast-assimilation system that arise from nonlinear interaction between the diurnal tide and the westward traveling quasi 2 day wave. The process yields a westward traveling “sum” wave with zonal wave number 4 and a period of 16 h, and an eastward traveling “difference” wave with zonal wave number 2 and a period of 2 days. While the eastward 2 day wave has been reported in satellite temperatures, the westward 16 h wave lies outside the Nyquist limits of resolution of twice daily local time satellite sampling. Hourly output from a high-altitude forecast-assimilation model is used to diagnose the nonlinear quadriad. A steady state primitive equation model forced by tide-2 day wave advection is used to intepret the nonlinear wave products. The westward 16 h wave maximizes in the midlatitude winter mesosphere and behaves like an inertia-gravity wave. The nonlinearly generated component of the eastward 2 day wave maximizes at high latitudes in the lower thermosphere, and only weakly penetrates to low latitudes. The 16 h and the eastward 2 day waves are of comparable amplitude and alias to the same apparent frequency when viewed from a satellite perspective.
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    Spatial and temporal variability in MLT turbulence inferred from in situ and ground-based observations during the WADIS-1 sounding rocket campaign
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2017) Strelnikov, Boris; Szewczyk, Artur; Strelnikova, Irina; Latteck, Ralph; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Rapp, Markus; Löhle, Stefan; Eberhart, Martin; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Dunker, Tim; Friedrich, Martin; Hedin, Jonas; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Gumbel, Jörg; Barjatya, Aroh
    In summer 2013 the WADIS-1 sounding rocket campaign was conducted at the Andøya Space Center (ACS) in northern Norway (69° N, 16° E). Among other things, it addressed the question of the variability in mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) turbulence, both in time and space. A unique feature of the WADIS project was multi-point turbulence sounding applying different measurement techniques including rocket-borne ionization gauges, VHF MAARSY radar, and VHF EISCAT radar near Tromsø. This allowed for horizontal variability to be observed in the turbulence field in the MLT at scales from a few to 100 km. We found that the turbulence dissipation rate, ε varied in space in a wavelike manner both horizontally and in the vertical direction. This wavelike modulation reveals the same vertical wavelengths as those seen in gravity waves. We also found that the vertical mean value of radar observations of ε agrees reasonably with rocket-borne measurements. In this way defined 〈εradar〉 value reveals clear tidal modulation and results in variation by up to 2 orders of magnitude with periods of 24 h. The 〈εradar〉 value also shows 12 h and shorter (1 to a few hours) modulations resulting in one decade of variation in 〈εradar〉 magnitude. The 24 h modulation appeared to be in phase with tidal change of horizontal wind observed by SAURA-MF radar. Such wavelike and, in particular, tidal modulation of the turbulence dissipation field in the MLT region inferred from our analysis is a new finding of this work.
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    Influence of subtropical Rossby wave trains on planetary wave activity over Antarctica in September 2002
    (Stockholm : Stockholm University Press, 2015) Peters, Dieter H.W.; Vargin, Pavel
    At the beginning of September 2002, strong convection processes over south-eastern Indonesia and over south-eastern Africa have been observed. Due to the strong upper tropospheric divergent outflow, two Rossby wave trains (RWTs) were generated. Their south-eastward propagation was controlled by the mean background flow. These two wave trains are visible in observations. It is hypothesised that these wave trains cause enhanced planetary wave activity fluxes which are a result of an amplified planetary wave 2 in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Antarctica. Such a change of the planetary wave structure was diagnosed in September 2002, prior to the first observed major sudden stratospheric warming event on the Southern Hemisphere. A simplified version of GCM ECHAM4 is used to evaluate the hypothesis. Sensitivity experiments were performed for a mean background flow similar to September 2002. Furthermore, the wave maker approach was used to generate Rossby waves in the subtropical upper troposphere at two distinct locations which are corresponding to the observed regions of divergent outflow. As a main result, after about 2 weeks of model integration with wave maker forcing, we find two RWTs with a south-eastward propagation inducing a polar amplification of planetary wave 2 in the upper troposphere and lower/middle stratosphere. The poleward wave activity flux is enhanced in comparison to the control run without any wave maker forcing. The convergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux causes a 25% deceleration of zonal mean zonal wind in the model stratosphere but no wind reversal. Sensitivity runs support the robustness of these results. The obtained model results highlight the mechanism and confirm the hypothesis that enhanced planetary wave activity in austral polar region in 2002 is caused by enhanced subtropical forcing of two RWTs.
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    Evidence for the In‐Situ Generation of Plasma Depletion Structures Over the Transition Region of Geomagnetic Low‐Mid Latitude
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2021) Sivakandan, M.; Mondal, S.; Sarkhel, S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Sunil Krishna, M.V.; Upadhayaya, A.K.; Shinbori, A.; Sori, T.; Kannaujiya, S.; Champati Ray, P.K.
    On a geomagnetic quiet night of October 29, 2018, we captured an observational evidence of the onset of dark band structures within the field-of-view of an all-sky airglow imager operating at 630.0 nm over a geomagnetic low-mid latitude transition region, Hanle, Leh Ladakh. Simultaneous ionosonde observations over New Delhi shows the occurrence of spread-F in the ionograms. Additionally, virtual and peak height indicate vertical upliftment in the F layer altitude and reduction in the ionospheric peak frequency were also observed when the dark band pass through the ionosonde location. All these results confirmed that the observed depletions are indeed associated with ionospheric F region plasma irregularities. The rate of total electron content index (ROTI) indicates the absence of plasma bubble activities over the equatorial/low latitude region which confirms that the observed event is a mid-latitude plasma depletion. Our calculations reveal that the growth time of the plasma depletion is ∼2 h if one considers only the Perkins instability mechanism. This is not consistent with the present observations as the plasma depletion developed within ∼25 min. By invoking possible Es layer instabilities and associated E-F region coupling, we show that the growth rate increases roughly by an order of magnitude. This strongly suggests that the Cosgrove and Tsunoda mechanism may be simultaneously operational in this case. Furthermore, it is also suggested that reduced F region flux-tube integrated conductivity in the southern part of onset region created conducive background conditions for the growth of the plasma depletion on this night.