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Now showing 1 - 10 of 44
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    Early Warning of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Phase Transition Using Complex Network Analysis
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2021) Lu, Zhenghui; Yuan, Naiming; Yang, Qing; Ma, Zhuguo; Kurths, Jürgen
    Obtaining an efficient prediction of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase transition is a worldwide challenge. Here, we employed the climate network analysis to uncover early warning signals prior to a PDO phase transition. This way an examination of cooperative behavior in the PDO region revealed an enhanced signal that propagated from the western Pacific to the northwest coast of North America. The detection of this signal corresponds very well to the time when the upper ocean heat content in the off-equatorial northwestern tropical Pacific reaches a threshold, in which case a PDO phase transition may be expected with the arising of the next El Ni urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl61986:grl61986-math-0001o/La Niurn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl61986:grl61986-math-0002 a event. The objectively detected early warning signal successfully forewarned all the six PDO phase transitions from the 1890–2000, and also underpinned the possible PDO phase transition around 2015, which may be triggered by the strong El Niurn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl61986:grl61986-math-0003o event in 2015–2016.
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    Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2017) Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd
    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is −102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to −6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.
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    Quasi‐10‐Day Wave and Semidiurnal Tide Nonlinear Interactions During the Southern Hemispheric SSW 2019 Observed in the Northern Hemispheric Mesosphere
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020) He, Maosheng; Chau, Jorge L.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Thorsen, Denise; Li, Guozhu; Siddiqui, Tarique Adnan; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Hocking, Wayne K.
    Mesospheric winds from three longitudinal sectors at 65°N and 54°N latitude are combined to diagnose the zonal wave numbers (m) of spectral wave signatures during the Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) 2019. Diagnosed are quasi-10- and 6-day planetary waves (Q10DW and Q6DW, m = 1), solar semidiurnal tides with m = 1, 2, 3 (SW1, SW2, and SW3), lunar semidiurnal tide, and the upper and lower sidebands (USB and LSB, m = 1 and 3) of Q10DW-SW2 nonlinear interactions. We further present 7-year composite analyses to distinguish SSW effects from climatological features. Before (after) the SSW onset, LSB (USB) enhances, accompanied by the enhancing (fading) Q10DW, and a weakening of climatological SW2 maximum. These behaviors are explained in terms of Manley-Rowe relation, that is, the energy goes first from SW2 to Q10DW and LSB, and then from SW2 and Q10DW to USB. Our results illustrate that the interactions can explain most wind variabilities associated with the SSW. © 2020. The Authors.
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    Four-Dimensional Quantification of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities in the Polar SummerMesosphere Using Volumetric Radar Imaging
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020) Chau, J.L.; Urco, J.M.; Avsarkisov, V.; Vierinen, J.P.; Latteck, R.; Hall, C.M.; Tsutsumi, M.
    We present and characterize in time and three spatial dimensions a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) event from polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) observed with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System. We use a newly developed radar imaging mode, which observed PMSE intensity and line of sight velocity with high temporal and angular resolution. The identified KHI event occurs in a narrow layer of 2.4 km thickness centered at 85 km altitude, is elongated along north-south direction, presents separation between billows of ~ 8 km in the east-west direction, and its billow width is ~ 3 km. The accompanying vertical gradients of the horizontal wind are between 35 and 45 m/s/km and vertical velocities inside the billows are ± 12 m/s. Based on the estimated Richardson (< 0.25), horizontal Froude ( ~ 0.8), and buoyancy Reynolds ( ~ 2.5 × 10 4) numbers, the observed event is a KHI that occurs under weak stratification and generates strong turbulence. © 2019. The Authors.
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    ZonalWave Number Diagnosis of RossbyWave-Like Oscillations Using Paired Ground-Based Radars
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020) He, Maosheng; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Hoffmann, Peter; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Li, Guozhu; Chau, Jorge Luis
    Free traveling Rossby wave normal modes (RNMs) are often investigated through large-scale space-time spectral analyses, which therefore is subject to observational availability, especially in the mesosphere. Ground-based mesospheric observations were broadly used to identify RNMs mostly according to the periods of RNMs without resolving their horizontal scales. The current study diagnoses zonal wave numbers of RNM-like oscillations occurring in mesospheric winds observed by two meteor radars at about 79°N. We explore four winters comprising the major stratospheric sudden warming events (SSWs) 2009, 2010, and 2013. Diagnosed are predominant oscillations at the periods of 10 and 16 days lasting mostly for three to five whole cycles. All dominant oscillations are associated with westward zonal wave number m=1, excepting one 16-day oscillation associated with m=2. We discuss the m=1 oscillations as transient RNMs and the m=2 oscillation as a secondary wave of nonlinear interaction between an RNM and a stationary Rossby wave. All the oscillations occur around onsets of the three SSWs, suggesting associations between RNMs and SSWs. For comparison, we also explore the wind collected by a similar network at 54°N during 2012–2016. Explored is a manifestation of 5-day wave, namely, an oscillation at 5–7 days with m=1), around the onset of SSW 2013, supporting the associations between RNMs and SSWs. ©2020. The Authors.
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    Impacts of a sudden stratospheric warming on the mesospheric metal layers
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2017) Feng, Wuhu; Kaifler, Bernd; Marsh, Daniel R.; Höffner, Josef; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Williams, Bifford P.; Plane, John M.C.
    We report measurements of atomic sodium, iron and temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) made by ground-based lidars at the ALOMAR observatory (69°N, 16°E) during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event that occurred in January 2009. The high resolution temporal observations allow the responses of the Na and Fe layers to the SSW at high northern latitudes to be investigated. A significant cooling with temperatures as low as 136 K around 90 km was observed on 22–23 January 2009, along with substantial depletions of the Na and Fe layers (an ~80% decrease in the column abundance with respect to the mean over the observation period). The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) incorporating the chemistry of Na, Fe, Mg and K, and nudged with reanalysis data below 60 km, captures well the timing of the SSW, although the extent of the cooling and consequently the depletion in the Na and Fe layers is slightly underestimated. The model also predicts that the perturbations to the metal layers would have been observable even at equatorial latitudes. The modelled Mg layer responds in a very similar way to Na and Fe, whereas the K layer is barely affected by the SSW because of the enhanced conversion of K+ ions to K atoms at the very low temperatures.
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    PMC Turbo : Studying Gravity Wave and Instability Dynamics in the Summer Mesosphere Using Polar Mesospheric Cloud Imaging and Profiling From a Stratospheric Balloon
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2019) Fritts, David C.; Miller, Amber D.; Kjellstrand, C. Bjorn; Geach, Christopher; Williams, Bifford P.; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Jones, Glenn; Rapp, Markus; Limon, Michele; Reimuller, Jason; Wang, Ling; Hanany, Shaul; Gisinger, Sonja; Zhao, Yucheng; Stober, Gunter; Randall, Cora E.
    The Polar Mesospheric Cloud Turbulence (PMC Turbo) experiment was designed to observe and quantify the dynamics of small-scale gravity waves (GWs) and instabilities leading to turbulence in the upper mesosphere during polar summer using instruments aboard a stratospheric balloon. The PMC Turbo scientific payload comprised seven high-resolution cameras and a Rayleigh lidar. Overlapping wide and narrow camera field of views from the balloon altitude of ~38 km enabled resolution of features extending from ~20 m to ~100 km at the PMC layer altitude of ~82 km. The Rayleigh lidar provided profiles of temperature below the PMC altitudes and of the PMCs throughout the flight. PMCs were imaged during an ~5.9-day flight from Esrange, Sweden, to Northern Canada in July 2018. These data reveal sensitivity of the PMCs and the dynamics driving their structure and variability to tropospheric weather and larger-scale GWs and tides at the PMC altitudes. Initial results reveal strong modulation of PMC presence and brightness by larger-scale waves, significant variability in the occurrence of GWs and instability dynamics on time scales of hours, and a diversity of small-scale dynamics leading to instabilities and turbulence at smaller scales. At multiple times, the overall field of view was dominated by extensive and nearly continuous GWs and instabilities at horizontal scales from ~2 to 100 km, suggesting sustained turbulence generation and persistence. At other times, GWs were less pronounced and instabilities were localized and/or weaker, but not absent. An overview of the PMC Turbo experiment motivations, scientific goals, and initial results is presented here. © 2019. The Authors.
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    A study of the dissociative recombination of CaO+ with electrons: Implications for Ca chemistry in the upper atmosphere
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2016) Bones, D.L.; Gerding, M.; Höffner, J.; Gómez Martín, Juan Carlos; Plane, J.M.C.
    The dissociative recombination of CaO+ ions with electrons has been studied in a flowing afterglow reactor. CaO+ was generated by the pulsed laser ablation of a Ca target, followed by entrainment in an Ar+ ion/electron plasma. A kinetic model describing the gas-phase chemistry and diffusion to the reactor walls was fitted to the experimental data, yielding a rate coefficient of (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10−7 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 at 295 K. This result has two atmospheric implications. First, the surprising observation that the Ca+/Fe+ ratio is ~8 times larger than Ca/Fe between 90 and 100 km in the atmosphere can now be explained quantitatively by the known ion-molecule chemistry of these two metals. Second, the rate of neutralization of Ca+ ions in a descending sporadic E layer is fast enough to explain the often explosive growth of sporadic neutral Ca layers.
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    Physics in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere: A personal perspective
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2022) Lübken, Franz-Josef
    The scope of this paper is to present some progress being made in the last few decades regarding some aspects of physical processes in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and to point to some open questions. This summary is presented from a personal perspective, i.e., this is not a review of a certain science topic. Most citations reflect my own work or are representative examples only. They are not meant to be complete or comprehensive.
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    Long‐Term Changes in the Northern Midwinter Middle Atmosphere in Relation to the Quasi‐Biennial Oscillation
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2019) Gabriel, A.
    Long-term changes in the middle atmosphere due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are examined in relation to the effect of the equatorial Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) on the northern midwinter circulation. The examinations are based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations for 1979–2100 with the Earth-System-Model MPI-ESM-MR that generates the QBO internally. In particular, the three-dimensional residual circulation is used as proxy for the Brewer-Dobson circulation, revealing an increasing downwelling in the center of the polar low over Northern Europe/Siberia (~5% per decade). The changes in northern midwinter temperature, zonal wind, and residual circulation are much stronger during westerly (QBO-W) than easterly (QBO-E) phase of QBO (e.g., for a moderate increase in greenhouse gases, we find maximum decreases in the zonal mean westerly jet at 60°N and 3 hPa of about −14.8 ± 5.4 m/s for QBO-W but only −4.7 ± 5.2 m/s for QBO-E). This is due to a change of the extratropical QBO-W signature toward QBO-E signature while the equatorial QBO remains nearly unchanged (i.e., a change toward disappearance of the so-called Holton-Tan relationship). Similar to the current change from QBO-W to QBO-E signature, the changes during QBO-W include an increase in amplitude and eastward shift in phase of stratospheric stationary Wave 1 at the cost of Wave 2, with decreasing westerlies over North America and increasing downwelling over Siberia. The eastward shift in phase of stationary Wave 1 is related to the associated increase in meridional transport of planetary vorticity. © 2019. The Authors.