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Now showing 1 - 10 of 192
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    Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise
    (Munich : EGU, 2012) Jørgensen, F.; Scheer, W.; Thomsen, S.; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Hinsby, K.; Wiederhold, H.; Schamper, C.; Burschil, T.; Roth, B.; Kirsch, R.; Auken, E.
    Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system), a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.
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    Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr
    (Munich : EGU, 2012) Burschil, T.; Scheer, W.; Kirsch, R.; Wiederhold, H.
    Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr. Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM) for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields. The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification. We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole data reveals the complex geology of a glacially-affected island. A sound understanding of the subsurface structure and the compilation of a 3-D model is imperative and the basis for a groundwater flow model to predict climate change effects on future water resources.
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    Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young fluvial deposits of the Middle Elbe River Flood Plains using different age models
    (Warsaw : De Gruyter, 2014) Kunz, Alexander; Pflanz, Dorthe; Weniger, Tobias; Urban, Brigitte; Krüger, Frank; Chen, Yue-Gau
    In the last few decades optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has become an im-portant tool in geochronological studies. The great advantage of the method, i.e. dating the deposi-tional age of sediments directly, can be impaired by incomplete bleaching of grains. This can result in a scattered distribution of equivalent doses (DE), leading to incorrect estimation of the depositional age. Thoroughly tested protocols as well as good data analysis with adequate statistical methods are important to overcome this problem. In this study, samples from young fluvial sand and flood plain deposits from the Elbe River in northern Germany were investigated to compare its depositional ages from different age models with well-known historical dates. Coarse grain quartz (100-200 μm and 150-250 μm) and polymineral fine grains (4-11 μm) were dated using the single aliquot regenerative (SAR) dose protocol. The paleodose (DP) was calculated from the DE data set using different ap-proaches. Results were compared with the development of the Elbe River, which is well-documented by historical records and maps covering the last 1,000 years. Depending on the statistical approach it can be demonstrated that depositional ages significantly differ from the most likely depositional age. For the investigated coarse grain quartz samples all ages calculated from the MAM-3UL, including their uncertainties, are within the historical documented age. Results of the polymineral fine grain samples are overestimating the historically documented depositional age, indicating undetectable in-complete bleaching. This study shows the importance of using an adequate statistical approach to cal-culate reliable OSL ages from fluvial sediments. © 2013 Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland. All rights reserved.
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    Quantitative imaging of water, ice and air in permafrost systems through petrophysical joint inversion of seismic refraction and electrical resistivity data
    (Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2019) Wagner, F.M.; Mollaret, C.; Günther, T.; Kemna, A.; Hauck, C.
    Quantitative estimation of pore fractions filled with liquid water, ice and air is crucial for a process-based understanding of permafrost and its hazard potential upon climate-induced degradation. Geophysical methods offer opportunities to image distributions of permafrost constituents in a non-invasive manner. We present a method to jointly estimate the volumetric fractions of liquid water, ice, air and the rock matrix from seismic refraction and electrical resistivity data. Existing approaches rely on conventional inversions of both data sets and a suitable a priori estimate of the porosity distribution to transform velocity and resistivity models into estimates for the four-phase system, often leading to non-physical results. Based on two synthetic experiments and a field data set from an Alpine permafrost site (Schilthorn, Bernese Alps and Switzerland), it is demonstrated that the developed petrophysical joint inversion provides physically plausible solutions, even in the absence of prior porosity estimates. An assessment of the model covariance matrix for the coupled inverse problem reveals remaining petrophysical ambiguities, in particular between ice and rock matrix. Incorporation of petrophysical a priori information is demonstrated by penalizing ice occurrence within the first two meters of the subsurface where the measured borehole temperatures are positive. Joint inversion of the field data set reveals a shallow air-rich layer with high porosity on top of a lower-porosity subsurface with laterally varying ice and liquid water contents. Non-physical values (e.g. negative saturations) do not occur and estimated ice saturations of 0–50 per cent as well as liquid water saturations of 15–75 per cent are in agreement with the relatively warm borehole temperatures between −0.5  and 3 ° C. The presented method helps to improve quantification of water, ice and air from geophysical observations.
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    Porosity estimation of a geothermal carbonate reservoir in the German Molasse Basin based on seismic amplitude inversion
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg [u.a.] : SpringerOpen, 2022) Wadas, Sonja Halina; von Hartmann, Hartwig
    The Molasse Basin is one of the most promising areas for deep geothermal exploitation in Germany and the target horizon is the aquifer in the Upper Jurassic carbonates. Carbonate deposits can be very heterogeneous even over a small area due to diagenetic processes and varying depositional environments. The preferential targets for geothermal exploitation in carbonate deposits are fault zones, reef facies and karstified areas, since they are expected to act as hydraulically permeable zones due to high porosity and high permeability. Therefore, identifying these structures and characterizing, e.g., their internal porosity distribution are of high importance. This can be accomplished using 3D reflection seismic data. Besides structural information, 3D seismic surveys provide important reservoir properties, such as acoustic impedance, from which a porosity model can be derived. In our study area in Munich we carried out a seismic amplitude inversion to get an acoustic impedance model of the Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir using a 3D seismic data set, a corresponding structural geological model, and logging data from six wells at the ‘Schäftlarnstraße’ geothermal site. The impedance model and porosity logs were than used to calculate a porosity model. The model shows a wide porosity range from 0 to 20% for the entire reservoir zone and the lithology along the wells reveals that dolomitic limestone has the highest porosities and calcareous dolomite has the lowest porosities. The study area is cut by a large W–E striking fault, the Munich Fault, and the footwall north of it shows higher porosities and more intense karstification than the hanging wall to the south. Considering the entire study area, an increase in porosity from east to west is observed. Furthermore, we identified a complex porosity distribution in reef buildups and pinnacle reefs. The reef cores have mostly low porosities of, e.g., < 3% and the highest porosities of up to 7 to 14% are observed at the reef caps and on the reef slopes. The reef slopes show a characteristic interfingering of the reef facies with the surrounding bedded facies, which indicates a syn-sedimentary reef development with slightly varying build up growth rates. We also assessed the reservoir quality with regard to porosity distribution and determined areas with moderate to good quality for geothermal exploitation by defining porosity evaluation levels. The porosity evaluation maps show that the carbonate rocks of Berriasian to Malm ζ1 are preferential targets for exploitation, especially in the footwall of the Munich Fault and to the west of the hanging wall, because these areas are characterized by high porosities due to intense karstification of bedded and massive facies, although the latter is mainly restricted to reef caps and reef slopes.
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    Rearrangement of stresses in fault zones - detecting major issues of coupled hydraulic–mechanical processes with relevance to geothermal applications
    (Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2014) Ziefle, G.
    The South German Molasse Basin provides favourable conditions for geothermal plants. Nevertheless, micro-seismic events occur in the vicinity of the geothermal Unterhaching Gt2 well and seem to be caused by the geothermal plant. The injection and production are located in an existing fault system. The majority of seismic events takes place at a horizontal distance of 500 m or less of the borehole. However, none of the seismic events are located in the injection reservoir but in fact at a significantly greater depth. A deeper process understanding of the interacting thermal–hydraulic–mechanical effects in the vicinity of the well is desired. This article presents a significantly simplified 2-D model, investigating interactions of the stress field in the vicinity of the geothermal well and movements in the fault system. This might be of special interest, as the operation of the geothermal plant might lead to changes in the material and fracture properties on the one hand and in the equilibrium state on the other. A detailed description of the model, as well as various parameter studies, is presented. It can be seen that boundary conditions such as direction of the stress field in relation to the fault system, geometry of the fault system and parameters of the fractures have a significant influence on stresses in the proximity of the geothermal well. A variation in the spatial stress field in some parts of the fault system is to be expected. For the chosen assumptions the dimension of this variation is about 25% of the assumed stresses. Future work on this model might focus on the characteristics of the fault system, as well as on the influence of the coupled thermal–hydraulic–mechanical effects.
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    Abrupt sand-dune accumulation at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau challenges the wet MIS3a inferred from numerous lake-highstands
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Long, Hao; Fuchs, Markus; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi
    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.
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    The Wunstorf Drilling Project: Coring a Global Stratigraphic Reference Section of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
    (Sapporo : IODP, 2007) Erbacher, Jochen; Mutterlose, Jőrg; Wilmsen, Markus; Wonik, Thomas
    [No abstract available]
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    Shear wave reflection seismic yields subsurface dissolution and subrosion patterns: application to the Ghor Al-Haditha sinkhole site, Dead Sea, Jordan
    (Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2018) Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Dahm, Torsten; Sawarieh, Ali; Atallah, Mohamad Y.; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.
    Near-surface geophysical imaging of alluvial fan settings is a challenging task but crucial for understating geological processes in such settings. The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha at the southeast shore of the Dead Sea is strongly affected by localized subsidence and destructive sinkhole collapses, with a significantly increasing sinkhole formation rate since ca. 1983. A similar increase is observed also on the western shore of the Dead Sea, in correlation with an ongoing decline in the Dead Sea level. Since different structural models of the upper 50 m of the alluvial fan and varying hypothetical sinkhole processes have been suggested for the Ghor Al-Haditha area in the past, this study aimed to clarify the subsurface characteristics responsible for sinkhole development. For this purpose, high-frequency shear wave reflection vibratory seismic surveys were carried out in the Ghor Al-Haditha area along several crossing and parallel profiles with a total length of 1.8 and 2.1 km in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The sedimentary architecture of the alluvial fan at Ghor Al-Haditha is resolved down to a depth of nearly 200 m at a high resolution and is calibrated with the stratigraphic profiles of two boreholes located inside the survey area. The most surprising result of the survey is the absence of evidence of a thick (> 2–10 m) compacted salt layer formerly suggested to lie at ca. 35–40 m depth. Instead, seismic reflection amplitudes and velocities image with good continuity a complex interlocking of alluvial fan deposits and lacustrine sediments of the Dead Sea between 0 and 200 m depth. Furthermore, the underground section of areas affected by sinkholes is characterized by highly scattering wave fields and reduced seismic interval velocities. We propose that the Dead Sea mud layers, which comprise distributed inclusions or lenses of evaporitic chloride, sulfate, and carbonate minerals as well as clay silicates, become increasingly exposed to unsaturated water as the sea level declines and are consequently destabilized and mobilized by both dissolution and physical erosion in the subsurface. This new interpretation of the underlying cause of sinkhole development is supported by surface observations in nearby channel systems. Overall, this study shows that shear wave seismic reflection technique is a promising method for enhanced near-surface imaging in such challenging alluvial fan settings.
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    Aufbau eines Internet basierten Informationszentrums für geothermische Energienutzung : GeotIS - Geothermische Informationssytem ; Endbericht ; Berichtszeitraum: 01.06.2009 - 31.03.2013
    (Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2013) Schulz, Rüdiger; Agemar, T.; Alten, J.-A.; Ganz, B.; Kuder, J.; Schumacher, S.; Tribbensee, K.
    [no abstract available]