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    Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2017-06-16) Callegari, Carlo; Takanashi, Tsukasa; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Matsunami, Kenji; Johnsson, Per; Piseri, Paolo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Dubrouil, Antoine; Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Vozzi, Caterina; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Calegari, Francesca; Castrovilli, Mattea; Coreno, Marcello; Alagia, Michele; Schütte, Bernd; Berrah, Nora; Plekan, Oksana; Finetti, Paola; Ferrari, Eugenio; Prince, Kevin; Ueda, Kiyoshi
    Pump-probe experiments are commonly used at Free Electron Lasers (FEL) to elucidate the femtosecond dynamics of atoms, molecules, clusters, liquids and solids. Maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements is often a primary need of the experiment, and the aggregation of repeated, rapid, scans of the pump-probe delay is preferable to a single long-lasting scan. The limited availability of beamtime makes it impractical to repeat measurements indiscriminately, and the large, rapid flow of single-shot data that need to be processed and aggregated into a dataset, makes it difficult to assess the quality of a measurement in real time. In post-analysis it is then necessary to devise unbiased criteria to select or reject datasets, and to assign the weight with which they enter the analysis. One such case was the measurement of the lifetime of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay in the weakly-bound neon dimer. We report on the method we used to accomplish this goal for the pump-probe delay scans that constitute the core of the measurement; namely we report on the use of simple auto- and cross-correlation techniques based on the general concept of “matched filter”. We are able to unambiguously assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each scan, which then becomes the weight with which a scan enters the average of multiple scans. We also observe a clear gap in the values of SNR, and we discard all the scans below a SNR of 0.45. We are able to generate an average delay scan profile, suitable for further analysis: in our previous work we used it for comparison with theory. Here we argue that the method is sufficiently simple and devoid of human action to be applicable not only in post-analysis, but also for the real-time assessment of the quality of a dataset.
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    Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields
    (Cambridge [u.a.] : Soc., 2016) Bruner, Barry D.; Mašín, Zdeněk; Negro, Matteo; Morales, Felipe; Brambila, Danilo; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Harvey, Alex G.; Ivanov, Misha; Mairesse, Yann; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Serbinenko, Valeria; Soifer, Hadas; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Dudovich, Nirit; Smirnova, Olga
    High harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science, where electronic dynamics can be measured on an attosecond time scale. The strong laser field that triggers the high harmonic response also opens multiple quantum pathways for multielectron dynamics in molecules, resulting in a complex process of multielectron rearrangement during ionization. Using combined experimental and theoretical approaches, we show how multi-dimensional HHG spectroscopy can be used to detect and follow electronic dynamics of core rearrangement on sub-laser cycle time scales. We detect the signatures of laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization and reconstruct the relative phases and amplitudes for relevant ionization channels in a CO2 molecule on a sub-cycle time scale. Reconstruction of channel-resolved complex ionization amplitudes on attosecond time scales has been a long-standing goal of high harmonic spectroscopy. Our study brings us one step closer to fulfilling this initial promise and developing robust schemes for sub-femtosecond imaging of multielectron rearrangement in complex molecular systems.