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Now showing 1 - 10 of 132
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    Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2017-06-16) Callegari, Carlo; Takanashi, Tsukasa; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Matsunami, Kenji; Johnsson, Per; Piseri, Paolo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Dubrouil, Antoine; Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Vozzi, Caterina; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Calegari, Francesca; Castrovilli, Mattea; Coreno, Marcello; Alagia, Michele; Schütte, Bernd; Berrah, Nora; Plekan, Oksana; Finetti, Paola; Ferrari, Eugenio; Prince, Kevin; Ueda, Kiyoshi
    Pump-probe experiments are commonly used at Free Electron Lasers (FEL) to elucidate the femtosecond dynamics of atoms, molecules, clusters, liquids and solids. Maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements is often a primary need of the experiment, and the aggregation of repeated, rapid, scans of the pump-probe delay is preferable to a single long-lasting scan. The limited availability of beamtime makes it impractical to repeat measurements indiscriminately, and the large, rapid flow of single-shot data that need to be processed and aggregated into a dataset, makes it difficult to assess the quality of a measurement in real time. In post-analysis it is then necessary to devise unbiased criteria to select or reject datasets, and to assign the weight with which they enter the analysis. One such case was the measurement of the lifetime of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay in the weakly-bound neon dimer. We report on the method we used to accomplish this goal for the pump-probe delay scans that constitute the core of the measurement; namely we report on the use of simple auto- and cross-correlation techniques based on the general concept of “matched filter”. We are able to unambiguously assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each scan, which then becomes the weight with which a scan enters the average of multiple scans. We also observe a clear gap in the values of SNR, and we discard all the scans below a SNR of 0.45. We are able to generate an average delay scan profile, suitable for further analysis: in our previous work we used it for comparison with theory. Here we argue that the method is sufficiently simple and devoid of human action to be applicable not only in post-analysis, but also for the real-time assessment of the quality of a dataset.
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    Signatures of attosecond electronic–nuclear dynamics in the one-photon ionization of molecular hydrogen: analytical model versusab initiocalculations
    ([London] : IOP, 2015) Medišauskas, Lukas; Morales, Felipe; Palacios, Alicia; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Plimak, Lev; Smirnova, Olga; Martín, Fernando; Ivanov, Misha Yu
    We present an analytical model based on the time-dependent WKB approximation to reproduce the photoionization spectra of an H2 molecule in the autoionization region. We explore the nondissociative channel, which is the major contribution after one-photon absorption, and we focus on the features arising in the energy differential spectra due to the interference between the direct and the autoionization pathways. These features depend on both the timescale of the electronic decay of the autoionizing state and the time evolution of the vibrational wavepacket created in this state. With full ab initio calculations and with a one-dimensional approach that only takes into account the nuclear wavepacket associated to the few relevant electronic states we compare the ground state, the autoionizing state, and the background continuum electronic states. Finally, we illustrate how these features transform from molecular-like to atomic-like by increasing the mass of the system, thus making the electronic decay time shorter than the nuclear wavepacket motion associated with the resonant state. In other words, autoionization then occurs faster than the molecular dissociation into neutrals.
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    Differential Cross Sections for the H + D2 → HD(v′ = 3, j′ = 4-10) + D Reaction above the Conical Intersection
    (Washington, DC : Soc., 2015) Gao, Hong; Sneha, Mahima; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C.; Zare, Richard N.
    We report rovibrationally selected differential cross sections (DCSs) of the benchmark reaction H + D2 → HD(v′ = 3, j′ = 4–10) + D at a collision energy of 3.26 eV, which exceeds the conical intersection of the H3 potential energy surface at 2.74 eV. We use the PHOTOLOC technique in which a fluorine excimer laser at 157.64 nm photodissociates hydrogen bromide (HBr) molecules to generate fast H atoms and the HD product is detected in a state-specific manner by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Fully converged quantum wave packet calculations were performed for this reaction at this high collision energy without inclusion of the geometric phase (GP) effect, which takes into account coupling to the first excited state of the H3 potential energy surface. Multimodal structures can be observed in most of the DCSs up to j′ = 10, which is predicted by theory and also well-reproduced by experiment. The theoretically calculated DCSs are in good overall agreement with the experimental measurements, which indicates that the GP effect is not large enough that its existence can be verified experimentally at this collision energy.
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    Plasma rotation with circularly polarized laser pulse
    (London : Hindawi, 2015) Lécz, Z.; Andreev, A.; Seryi, A.
    The efficient transfer of angular orbital momentum from circularly polarized laser pulses into ions of solid density targets is investigated with different geometries using particle-in-cell simulations. The detailed electron and ion dynamics presented focus upon the energy and momentum conversion efficiency. It is found that the momentum transfer is more efficient for spiral targets and the maximum value is obtained when the spiral step is equal to twice the laser wavelength. This study reveals that the angular momentum distribution of ions strongly depends up on the initial target shape and density.
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    Atomic processes in bicircular fields
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2016) Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D.B.
    We investigate laser-assisted electron-ion recombination (LAR), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of argon atoms by a bicircular laser field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies rω and sω. The energy of soft x rays generated in the LAR process is analyzed as a function of the incident electron angle and numerical results of direct recombination of electrons with Ar+ ions are presented. We also present the results of HHG by a bicircular field and confirm the selection rules derived earlier for inert-gas atoms in a p ground state. We show that the photoelectron spectra in the ATI process, presented in the momentum plane, as well as the LAR spectra exhibit the same discrete rotational symmetry as the applied field.
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    Passive and hybrid mode locking in multi-section terahertz quantum cascade lasers
    ([Bad Honnef] : Dt. Physikalische Ges., 2018-05-24) Tzenov, P.; Babushkin, I.; Arkhipov, R.; Arkhipov, M.; Rosanov, N.; Morgner, U.; Jirauschek, C.
    It is believed that passive mode locking is virtually impossible in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because of too fast carrier relaxation time. Here, we revisit this possibility and theoretically show that stable mode locking and pulse durations in the few cycle regime at terahertz (THz) frequencies are possible in suitably engineered bound-to-continuum QCLs. We achieve this by utilizing a multi-section cavity geometry with alternating gain and absorber sections. The critical ingredients are the very strong coupling of the absorber to both field and environment as well as a fast absorber carrier recovery dynamics. Under these conditions, even if the gain relaxation time is several times faster than the cavity round trip time, generation of few-cycle pulses is feasible. We investigate three different approaches for ultrashort pulse generation via THz quantum cascade lasers, namely passive, hybrid and colliding pulse mode locking.
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    Attosecond time delays in C60 valence photoemissions at the giant plasmon
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2015) Barillot, T.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Loriot, V.; Bordas, C.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Johnsson, P.; Laksman, J.; Mansson, E.P.; Sorensen, S.; Canton, S.E.; Dahlström, J.M.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M.E.; Lépine, F.; Chakraborty, H.S.
    We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the time delay in C60 HOMO and HOMO-1 photoionization at giant plasmon energies. A semiclassical model is used to develop further insights.
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    Compact, high-repetition-rate source for broadband sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publishing, 2017) Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Petrov, Valentin; Mero, Mark
    We present a high-efficiency optical parametric source for broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) for the chemically important mid-infrared spectral range at 2800-3600 cm-1 to study hydrogen bonding interactions affecting the structural organization of biomolecules at water interfaces. The source consists of a supercontinuum-seeded, dual-beam optical parametric amplifier with two broadband infrared output beams and a chirped sum-frequency mixing stage providing narrowband visible pulses with adjustable bandwidth. Utilizing a pulse energy of only 60 μJ from a turn-key, 1.03-μm pump laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 kHz, the source delivers 6-cycle infrared pulses at 1.5 and 3.2 μm with pulse energies of 4.6 and 1.8 μJ, respectively, and narrowband pulses at 0.515 μm with a pulse energy of 5.0 μJ. The 3.2-μm pulses are passively carrier envelope phase stabilized with fluctuations at the 180-mrad level over a 10-s time period. The 1.5-μm beamline can be exploited to deliver pump pulses for time-resolved studies after suitable frequency up-conversion. The high efficiency, stability, and two orders of magnitude higher repetition rate of the source compared to typically employed systems offer great potential for providing a boost in sensitivity in BB-VSFG experiments at a reduced cost.
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    The Bend+Libration Combination Band Is an Intrinsic, Collective, and Strongly Solute-Dependent Reporter on the Hydrogen Bonding Network of Liquid Water
    (Washington, DC : Americal Chemical Society, 2017) Verma, Pramod Kumar; Kundu, Achintya; Puretz, Matthew S.; Dhoonmoon, Charvanaa; Chegwidden, Oriana S.; Londergan, Casey H.; Cho, Minhaeng
    Water is an extensively self-associated liquid due to its extensive hydrogen bond (H-bond) forming ability. The resulting H-bonded network fluid exhibits nearly continuous absorption of light from the terahertz to the near-IR region. The relatively weak bend+libration water combination band (centered at 2130 cm-1) has been largely overlooked as a reporter of liquid water's structure and dynamics despite its location in a convenient region of the IR for spectroscopic study. The intermolecular nature of the combination band leads to a unique absorption signal that reports collectively on the rigidity of the H-bonding network in the presence of many different solutes. This study reports comprehensively how the combination band acts as an intrinsic and collective probe in various chemically and biologically relevant solutions, including salts of varying character, denaturants, osmolytes, crowders, and surfactants that form reverse micelles and micelles. While we remark on changes in the line width and intensity of this combination band, we mainly focus on the frequency and how the frequency reports on the collective H-bonding network of liquid water. We also comment on the "association band" moniker often applied to this band and how to evaluate discrete features in this spectral region that sometimes appear in the IR spectra of specific kinds of aqueous samples of organic solutes, especially those with very high solute concentrations, with the conclusion that most of these discrete spectral features come exclusively from the solutes and do not report on the water. Contrasts are drawn throughout this work between the collective and delocalized reporting ability of the combination band and the response of more site-specific vibrations like the much-investigated OD stretch of HDO in H2O: the combination band is a unique reporter of H-bonding structure and dynamics and fundamentally different than any local mode probe. Since this band appears as the spectroscopic "background" for many local-mode reporter groups, we note the possibility of observing both local and collective solvent dynamics at the same time in this spectral region.
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    Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1-electron atomic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates
    (Amsterdam : North Holland Publ. Co., 2015) Patchkovskii, Serguei; Müller, Harm Geert
    Modelling atomic processes in intense laser fields often relies on solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). For processes involving ionisation, such as above-threshold ionisation (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG), this is a formidable task even if only one electron is active. Several powerful ideas for efficient implementation of atomic TDSE were introduced by H.G. Muller some time ago (Muller, 1999), including: separation of Hamiltonian terms into tri-diagonal parts; implicit representation of the spatial derivatives; and use of a rotating reference frame. Here, we extend these techniques to allow for non-uniform radial grids, arbitrary laser field polarisation, and non-Hermitian terms in the Hamiltonian due to the implicit form of the derivatives (previously neglected). We implement the resulting propagator in a parallel Fortran program, adapted for multi-core execution. Cost of TDSE propagation scales linearly with the problem size, enabling full-dimensional calculations of strong-field ATI and HHG spectra for arbitrary field polarisations on a standard desktop PC.