Ingenieurwissenschaften

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    Functional two-dimensional high-entropy materials
    (London : Springer Nature, 2023) Nemani, Srinivasa Kartik; Torkamanzadeh, Mohammad; Wyatt, Brian C.; Presser, Volker; Anasori, Babak
    Multiple principal element or high-entropy materials have recently been studied in the two-dimensional (2D) materials phase space. These promising classes of materials combine the unique behavior of solid-solution and entropy-stabilized systems with high aspect ratios and atomically thin characteristics of 2D materials. The current experimental space of these materials includes 2D transition metal oxides, carbides/carbonitrides/nitrides (MXenes), dichalcogenides, and hydrotalcites. However, high-entropy 2D materials have the potential to expand into other types, such as 2D metal-organic frameworks, 2D transition metal carbo-chalcogenides, and 2D transition metal borides (MBenes). Here, we discuss the entropy stabilization from bulk to 2D systems, the effects of disordered multi-valent elements on lattice distortion and local electronic structures and elucidate how these local changes influence the catalytic and electrochemical behavior of these 2D high-entropy materials. We also provide a perspective on 2D high-entropy materials research and its challenges and discuss the importance of this emerging field of nanomaterials in designing tunable compositions with unique electronic structures for energy, catalytic, electronic, and structural applications.
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    A printed luminescent flier inspired by plant seeds for eco-friendly physical sensing
    (Washington, DC [u.a.] : Assoc., 2023) Cikalleshi, Kliton; Nexha, Albenc; Kister, Thomas; Ronzan, Marilena; Mondini, Alessio; Mariani, Stefano; Kraus, Tobias; Mazzolai, Barbara
    Continuous and distributed monitoring of environmental parameters may pave the way for developing sustainable strategies to tackle climate challenges. State-of-the-art technologies, made with electronic systems, are often costly, heavy, and generate e-waste. Here, we propose a new generation of self-deployable, biocompatible, and luminescent artificial flying seeds for wireless, optical, and eco-friendly monitoring of environmental parameters (i.e., temperature). Inspired by natural Acer campestre plant seeds, we developed three-dimensional functional printed luminescent seed–like fliers, selecting polylactic acid as a biocompatible matrix and temperature as a physical parameter to be monitored. The artificial seeds mimic the aerodynamic and wind dispersal performance of the natural ones. The sensing properties are given by the integration of fluorescent lanthanide–doped particles, whose photoluminescence properties depend on temperature. The luminescent artificial flying seeds can be optically read from a distance using eye-safe near-infrared wavelengths, thus acting as a deployable sensor for distributed monitoring of topsoil environmental temperatures.
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    Is there more than one stickiness criterion?
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2022) Wang, Anle; Müser, Martin H.
    Adhesion between an elastic body and a smooth, rigid substrate can lead to large tensile stresses between them. However, most macroscopic objects are microscopically rough, which strongly suppresses adhesion. A fierce debate has unfolded recently as to whether local or global parameters determine the crossover between small and large adhesion. Here, we report simulations revealing that the dependence of the pull-off force Fn on the surface energy γ does not only have two regimes of high and low adhesion but up to four regimes. They are related to contacts, which at the moment of rupture consist of (i) the last individual Hertzian-shaped contact, in which is linear in γ, (ii) a last meso-scale, individual patches with super-linear scaling, (iii) many isolated contact patches with extremely strong scaling, and (iv) a dominating largest contact patch, for which the pull-off stress is no longer negligible compared to the maximum, microscopic pull-off stress. Regime (iii) can be seen as a transition domain. It is located near the point where the surface energy is half the elastic energy per unit area in conformal contact. A criterion for the transition between regimes (i) and (ii) appears difficult to grasp. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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    On the afferrante-carbone theory of ultratough tape peeling
    (Niš : Univ., 2023) Ciavarella, Michele; McMeeking, Robert M.; Cricrì, Gabriele
    In a simple and interesting theory of ultratough peeling of an elastic tape from a viscoelastic substrate, Afferrante and Carbone find that there are conditions for which the load for steady state peeling could be arbitrarily large in steady state peeling, at low angles of peeling-what they call "ultratough" peeling (Afferrante, L., Carbone, G., 2016, The ultratough peeling of elastic tapes from viscoelastic substrates, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 96, pp.223-234). Surprisingly, this seems to lead to toughness enhancement higher than the limit value observed in a very large crack in an infinite viscoelastic body, possibly even considering a limit on the stress transmitted. The Afferrante-Carbone theory seems to be a quite approximate, qualitative theory and many aspects and features of this "ultratough" peeling (e.g. conformity with the Rivlin result at low peel angles) are obtained also through other mechanisms (Begley, M.R., Collino, R.R., Israelachvili, J.N., McMeeking, R.M., 2013, Peeling of a tape with large deformations and frictional sliding, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 61(5), pp. 1265-1279) although not at “critical velocities”. Experimental and/or numerical verification would be most useful.
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    Interlaboratory study assessing the analysis of supercapacitor electrochemistry data
    (New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2023) Gittins, Jamie W.; Chen, Yuan; Arnold, Stefanie; Augustyn, Veronica; Balducci, Andrea; Brousse, Thierry; Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Kanwade, Archana; Köps, Lukas; Jha, Plawan Kumar; Lyu, Dongxun; Meo, Michele; Pandey, Deepak; Pang, Le; Presser, Volker; Rapisarda, Mario; Rueda-García, Daniel; Saeed, Saeed; Shirage, Parasharam M.; Ślesiński, Adam; Soavi, Francesca; Thomas, Jayan; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Wang, Hongxia; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Aiping; Zhang, Maiwen; Forse, Alexander C.
    Supercapacitors are fast-charging energy storage devices of great importance for developing robust and climate-friendly energy infrastructures for the future. Research in this field has seen rapid growth in recent years, therefore consistent reporting practices must be implemented to enable reliable comparison of device performance. Although several studies have highlighted the best practices for analysing and reporting data from such energy storage devices, there is yet to be an empirical study investigating whether researchers in the field are correctly implementing these recommendations, and which assesses the variation in reporting between different laboratories. Here we address this deficit by carrying out the first interlaboratory study of the analysis of supercapacitor electrochemistry data. We find that the use of incorrect formulae and researchers having different interpretations of key terminologies are major causes of variability in data reporting. Furthermore we highlight the more significant variation in reported results for electrochemical profiles showing non-ideal capacitive behaviour. From the insights gained through this study, we make additional recommendations to the community to help ensure consistent reporting of performance metrics moving forward.