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Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Argon Humidification Exacerbates Antimicrobial and Anti-MRSA kINPen Plasma Activity
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Clemen, Ramona; Singer, Debora; Skowski, Henry; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma is a medical technology with antimicrobial properties. Its main mode of action is oxidative damage via reactive species production. The clinical efficacy of gas plasma-reduced bacterial burden has been shown to be hampered in some cases. Since the reactive species profile produced by gas plasma jets, such as the kINPen used in this study, are thought to determine antimicrobial efficacy, we screened an array of feed gas settings in different types of bacteria. Antimicrobial analysis was performed by single-cell analysis using flow cytometry. We identified humidified feed gas to mediate significantly greater toxicity compared to dry argon and many other gas plasma conditions. The results were confirmed by inhibition zone analysis on gas-plasma-treated microbial lawns grown on agar plates. Our results may have vital implications for clinical wound management and potentially enhance antimicrobial efficacy of medical gas plasma therapy in patient treatment.
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    Biological Risk Assessment of Three Dental Composite Materials following Gas Plasma Exposure
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Miebach, Lea; Pommerening, Jonas; Clemen, Ramona; Witzke, Katharina
    Gas plasma is an approved technology that generates a plethora of reactive oxygen species, which are actively applied for chronic wound healing. Its particular antimicrobial action has spurred interest in other medical fields, such as periodontitis in dentistry. Recent work has indicated the possibility of performing gas plasma-mediated biofilm removal on teeth. Teeth frequently contain restoration materials for filling cavities, e.g., resin-based composites. However, it is unknown if such materials are altered upon gas plasma exposure. To this end, we generated a new in-house workflow for three commonly used resin-based composites following gas plasma treatment and incubated the material with human HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro. Cytotoxicity was investigated by metabolic activity analysis, flow cytometry, and quantitative high-content fluorescence imaging. The inflammatory consequences were assessed using quantitative analysis of 13 different chemokines and cytokines in the culture supernatants. Hydrogen peroxide served as the control condition. A modest but significant cytotoxic effect was observed in the metabolic activity and viability after plasma treatment for all three composites. This was only partially treatment time-dependent and the composites alone affected the cells to some extent, as evident by differential secretion profiles of VEGF, for example. Gas plasma composite modification markedly elevated the secretion of IL6, IL8, IL18, and CCL2, with the latter showing the highest correlation with treatment time (Pearson’s r > 0.95). Cell culture media incubated with gas plasma-treated composite chips and added to cells thereafter could not replicate the effects, pointing to the potential that surface modifications elicited the findings. In conclusion, our data suggest that gas plasma treatment modifies composite material surfaces to a certain extent, leading to measurable but overall modest biological effects.
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    Singlet-Oxygen-Induced Phospholipase A2 Inhibition: A Major Role for Interfacial Tryptophan Dioxidation
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Memari, Seyedali; Wenske, Sebastian; Clemen, Ramona; Martens, Ulrike; Delcea, Mihaela; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, Kristian
    Several studies have revealed that various diseases such as cancer have been associated with elevated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 catalytic activity is undoubtedly vital. In this study, effective inactivation of PLA2 due to reactive species produced from cold physical plasma as a source to model oxidative stress is reported. We found singlet oxygen to be the most relevant active agent in PLA2 inhibition. A more detailed analysis of the plasma-treated PLA2 identified tryptophan 128 as a hot spot, rich in double oxidation. The significant dioxidation of this interfacial tryptophan resulted in an N-formylkynurenine product via the oxidative opening of the tryptophan indole ring. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that the efficient interactions between the tryptophan residue and phospholipids are eliminated following tryptophan dioxidation. As interfacial tryptophan residues are predominantly involved in the attaching of membrane enzymes to the bilayers, tryptophan dioxidation and indole ring opening leads to the loss of essential interactions for enzyme binding and, consequently, enzyme inactivation. © 2021 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Non-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, Fatah
    Effective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
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    Oxidized Proteins Differentially Affect Maturation and Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Clemen, Ramona; Arlt, Kevin; Miebach, Lea; von Woedtke, Thomas; Bekeschus, Sander
    In cancer, antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DCs), take up and process proteins to mount adaptive antitumor immune responses. This often happens in the context of inflamed cancer, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous to modify proteins. However, the inflammatory consequences of oxidized protein uptake in DCs are understudied. To this end, we investigated human monocyte-derived cell surface marker expression and cytokine release profiles when exposed to oxidized and native proteins. Seventeen proteins were analyzed, including viral proteins (e.g., CMV and HBV), inflammation-related proteins (e.g., HO1 and HMGB1), matrix proteins (e.g., Vim and Coll), and vastly in the laboratory used proteins (e.g., BSA and Ova). The multifaceted nature of inflammation-associated ROS was mimicked using gas plasma technology, generating reactive species cocktails for protein oxidation. Fourteen oxidized proteins led to elevated surface marker expression levels of CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II as well as strongly modified release of IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL23, MCP-1, and TNFα compared to their native counterparts. Especially IL8, heme oxygenase 2, and vimentin oxidation gave pronounced effects. Furthermore, protein kinase phospho-array studies in monocyte-derived cells pulsed with native vs. oxidized IL8 and insulin showed enhanced AKT and RSK2 phosphorylation. In summary, our data provide for the first time an overview of the functional consequences of oxidized protein uptake by human monocyte-derived cells and could therefore be a starting point for exploiting such principle in anticancer therapy in the future.
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    Argon Plasma Exposure Augments Costimulatory Ligands and Cytokine Release in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; Meyer, Dorothee; Arlt, Kevin; von Woedtke, Thomas; Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Clemen, Ramona
    Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas expelling many reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Several plasma devices have been licensed for medical use in dermatology, and recent experimental studies suggest their putative role in cancer treatment. In cancer therapies with an immunological dimension, successful antigen presentation and inflammation modulation is a key hallmark to elicit antitumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for this task. However, the inflammatory consequences of DCs following plasma exposure are unknown. To this end, human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were expanded from isolated human primary monocytes; exposed to plasma; and their metabolic activity, surface marker expression, and cytokine profiles were analyzed. As controls, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and peroxynitrite were used. Among all types of ROS/RNS-mediated treatments, plasma exposure exerted the most notable increase of activation markers at 24 h such as CD25, CD40, and CD83 known to be crucial for T cell costimulation. Moreover, the treatments increased interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and IL-23. Altogether, this study suggests plasma treatment augmenting costimulatory ligand and cytokine expression in human moDCs, which might exert beneficial effects in the tumor microenvironment.
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    Oxidatively Modified Proteins: Cause and Control of Diseases
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Clemen, Ramona; Bekeschus, Sander
    Proteins succumb to numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs). These relate to enzymatic or non-enzymatic reactions taking place in either the intracellular or extracellular compartment. While intracellular oxidative changes are mainly due to redox stress, extracellular PTMs may be induced in an inflammatory micro milieu that is rich in reactive species. The increasing recognition of oxidative modifications as a causing agent or side-effect of pathophysiological states and diseases puts oxidative PTMS (oxPTMs) into the spotlight of inflammation research. Pathological hyper-modification of proteins can lead to accumulation, aggregation, cell stress, altered antigenic peptides, and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)-like recognition by host immunity. Such processes are linked to cardiovascular disease and autoinflammation. At the same time, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms governing inflammatory responses to oxPTMs may capitalize on new therapeutic routes for enhancing adaptive immune responses as needed, for instance, in oncology. We here summarize some of the latest developments of oxPTMs in disease diagnosis and therapy. Potential target proteins and upcoming technologies, such as gas plasmas, are outlined for future research that may aid in identifying the molecular basis of immunogenic vs. tolerogenic oxPTMs.
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    Physical plasma-treated skin cancer cells amplify tumor cytotoxicity of human natural killer (NK) cells
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Clemen, Ramona; Heirman, Pepijn; Lin, Abraham; Bogaerts, Annemie; Bekeschus, Sander
    Skin cancers have the highest prevalence of all human cancers, with the most lethal forms being squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Besides the conventional local treatment approaches like surgery and radiotherapy, cold physical plasmas are emerging anticancer tools. Plasma technology is used as a therapeutic agent by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence shows that inflammation and adaptive immunity are involved in cancer-reducing effects of plasma treatment, but the role of innate immune cells is still unclear. Natural killer (NK)-cells interact with target cells via activating and inhibiting surface receptors and kill in case of dominating activating signals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cold physical plasma (kINPen) on two skin cancer cell lines (A375 and A431), with non-malignant HaCaT keratinocytes as control, and identified a plasma treatment time-dependent toxicity that was more pronounced in the cancer cells. Plasma treatment also modulated the expression of activating and inhibiting receptors more profoundly in skin cancer cells compared to HaCaT cells, leading to significantly higher NK-cell killing rates in the tumor cells. Together with increased pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and IL-8, we conclude that plasma treatment spurs stress responses in skin cancer cells, eventually augmenting NK-cell activity. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Therapeutic ROS and Immunity in Cancer-The TRIC-21 Meeting
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; Emmert, Steffen; Clemen, Ramona; Boeckmann, Lars
    The first Therapeutic ROS and Immunity in Cancer (TRIC) meeting was organized by the excellence research center ZIK plasmatis (with its previous Frontiers in Redox Biochemistry and Medicine (FiRBaM) and Young Professionals' Workshop in Plasma Medicine (YPWPM) workshop series in Northern Germany) and the excellence research program ONKOTHER-H (Rostock/Greifswald, Germany). The meeting showcased cutting-edge research and liberated discussions on the application of therapeutic ROS and immunology in cancer treatment, primarily focusing on gas plasma technology. The 2-day hybrid meeting took place in Greifswald and online from 15-16 July 2021, facilitating a wide range of participants totaling 66 scientists from 12 countries and 5 continents. The meeting aimed at bringing together researchers from a variety of disciplines, including chemists, biochemists, biologists, engineers, immunologists, physicists, and physicians for interdisciplinary discussions on using therapeutic ROS and medical gas plasma technology in cancer therapy with the four main sessions: "Plasma, Cancer, Immunity", "Plasma combination therapies", "Plasma risk assessment and patients studies", and "Plasma mechanisms and treated liquids in cancer". This conference report outlines the abstracts of attending scientists submitted to this meeting.