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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Respiratory tract deposition of inhaled roadside ultrafine refractory particles in a polluted megacity of South-East Asia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Löndahl, Jakob; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Idolor, Luisito F.; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Recent studies demonstrate that Black Carbon (BC) pollution in economically developing megacities remain higher than the values, which the World Health Organization considers to be safe. Despite the scientific evidence of the degrees of BC exposure, there is still a lack of understanding on how the severe levels of BC pollution affect human health in these regions. We consider information on the respiratory tract deposition dose (DD) of BC to be essential in understanding the link between personal exposure to air pollutants and corresponding health effects. In this work, we combine data on fine and ultrafine refractory particle number concentrations (BC proxy), and activity patterns to derive the respiratory tract deposited amounts of BC particles for the population of the highly polluted metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. We calculated the total DD of refractory particles based on three metrics: refractory particle number, surface area, and mass concentrations. The calculated DD of total refractory particle number in Metro Manila was found to be 1.6 to 17 times higher than average values reported from Europe and the U.S. In the case of Manila, ultrafine particles smaller than 100 nm accounted for more than 90% of the total deposited refractory particle dose in terms of particle number. This work is a first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the DD of refractory particles and raise awareness in assessing pollution-related health effects in developing megacities. We demonstrate that the majority of the population may be highly affected by BC pollution, which is known to have negative health outcomes if no actions are taken to mitigate its emission. For the governments of such metropolitan areas, we suggest to revise currently existing environmental legislation, raise public awareness, and to establish supplementary monitoring of black carbon in parallel to already existing PM 10 and PM 2.5 measures. © 2019
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    Pedestrian exposure to black carbon and PM2.5 emissions in urban hot spots: new findings using mobile measurement techniques and flexible Bayesian regression models
    (Basingstoke : Nature Publ. Group, 2021) Alas, Honey Dawn; Stöcker, Almond; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Senaweera, Oshada; Pfeifer, Sascha; Greven, Sonja; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Background Data from extensive mobile measurements (MM) of air pollutants provide spatially resolved information on pedestrians’ exposure to particulate matter (black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 mass concentrations). Objective We present a distributional regression model in a Bayesian framework that estimates the effects of spatiotemporal factors on the pollutant concentrations influencing pedestrian exposure. Methods We modeled the mean and variance of the pollutant concentrations obtained from MM in two cities and extended commonly used lognormal models with a lognormal-normal convolution (logNNC) extension for BC to account for instrument measurement error. Results The logNNC extension significantly improved the BC model. From these model results, we found local sources and, hence, local mitigation efforts to improve air quality, have more impact on the ambient levels of BC mass concentrations than on the regulated PM2.5. Significance Firstly, this model (logNNC in bamlss package available in R) could be used for the statistical analysis of MM data from various study areas and pollutants with the potential for predicting pollutant concentrations in urban areas. Secondly, with respect to pedestrian exposure, it is crucial for BC mass concentration to be monitored and regulated in areas dominated by traffic-related air pollution.
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    Preventing airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals and nursing homes
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Ahlawat, Ajit; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Birks, John W.; Costabile, Francesca; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    [No abstract available]
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    Phenomenology of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution across urban Europe
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2023) Trechera, Pedro; Garcia-Marlès, Meritxell; Liu, Xiansheng; Reche, Cristina; Pérez, Noemí; Savadkoohi, Marjan; Beddows, David; Salma, Imre; Vörösmarty, Máté; Casans, Andrea; Casquero-Vera, Juan Andrés; Hueglin, Christoph; Marchand, Nicolas; Chazeau, Benjamin; Gille, Grégory; Kalkavouras, Panayiotis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Ondracek, Jakub; Zikova, Nadia; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Manninen, Hanna E.; Green, David C.; Tremper, Anja H.; Norman, Michael; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Gerwig, Holger; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Bastian, Susanne; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Crumeyrolle, Suzanne; Ferlay, Nicolas; Martins Dos Santos, Sebastiao; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Timonen, Hilkka; Lampilahti, Janne; Asbach, Christof; Wolf, Carmen; Kaminski, Heinz; Altug, Hicran; Hoffmann, Barbara; Rich, David Q.; Pandolfi, Marco; Harrison, Roy M.; Hopke, Philip K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier
    The 2017–2019 hourly particle number size distributions (PNSD) from 26 sites in Europe and 1 in the US were evaluated focusing on 16 urban background (UB) and 6 traffic (TR) sites in the framework of Research Infrastructures services reinforcing air quality monitoring capacities in European URBAN & industrial areaS (RI-URBANS) project. The main objective was to describe the phenomenology of urban ultrafine particles (UFP) in Europe with a significant air quality focus. The varying lower size detection limits made it difficult to compare PN concentrations (PNC), particularly PN10-25, from different cities. PNCs follow a TR > UB > Suburban (SUB) order. PNC and Black Carbon (BC) progressively increase from Northern Europe to Southern Europe and from Western to Eastern Europe. At the UB sites, typical traffic rush hour PNC peaks are evident, many also showing midday-morning PNC peaks anti-correlated with BC. These peaks result from increased PN10-25, suggesting significant PNC contributions from nucleation, fumigation and shipping. Site types to be identified by daily and seasonal PNC and BC patterns are: (i) PNC mainly driven by traffic emissions, with marked correlations with BC on different time scales; (ii) marked midday/morning PNC peaks and a seasonal anti-correlation with PNC/BC; (iii) both traffic peaks and midday peaks without marked seasonal patterns. Groups (ii) and (iii) included cities with high insolation. PNC, especially PN25-800, was positively correlated with BC, NO2, CO and PM for several sites. The variable correlation of PNSD with different urban pollutants demonstrates that these do not reflect the variability of UFP in urban environments. Specific monitoring of PNSD is needed if nanoparticles and their associated health impacts are to be assessed. Implementation of the CEN-ACTRIS recommendations for PNSD measurements would provide comparable measurements, and measurements of <10 nm PNC are needed for full evaluation of the health effects of this size fraction.
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    Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition
    (London : Nature Publ. Group, 2017) Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Kristensson, Adam; Iwamoto, Yoko; Pringle, Kirsty; Reddington, Carly; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Baltensperger, Urs; Bialek, Jakub; Birmili, Wolfram; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Fiebig, Markus; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Furuya, Masaki; Hammer, Emanuel; Heikkinen, Liine; Herrmann, Erik; Holzinger, Rupert; Hyono, Hiroyuki; Kanakidou, Maria; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kinouchi, Kento; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Motos, Ghislain; Nenes, Athanasios; O’Dowd, Colin; Paramonov, Mikhail; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Slowik, Jay; Sonntag, Andre; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wittbom, Cerina; Ogren, John A.; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Carslaw, Ken; Stratmann, Frank; Gysel, Martin
    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data. The observatories represent nine different environments, e.g., Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Mediterranean maritime, boreal forest, or high alpine atmospheric conditions. This is a unique collection of aerosol particle properties most relevant for studying aerosol-cloud interactions which constitute the largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. The dataset is appropriate for comprehensive aerosol characterization (e.g., closure studies of CCN), model-measurement intercomparison and satellite retrieval method evaluation, among others. Data have been acquired and processed following international recommendations for quality assurance and have undergone multiple stages of quality assessment.
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    Long-term trends of black carbon and particle number concentration in the lower free troposphere in Central Europe
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2021) Sun, Jia; Hermann, Markus; Yuan, Ye; Birmili, Wolfram; Collaud Coen, Martine; Weinhold, Kay; Madueño, Leizel; Poulain, Laurent; Tuch, Thomas; Ries, Ludwig; Sohmer, Ralf; Couret, Cedric; Frank, Gabriele; Brem, Benjamin Tobias; Gysel-Beer, Martin; Ma, Nan; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Background: The implementation of emission mitigation policies in Europe over the last two decades has generally improved the air quality, which resulted in lower aerosol particle mass, particle number, and black carbon mass concentration. However, little is known whether the decreasing particle concentrations at a lower-altitude level can be observed in the free troposphere (FT), an important layer of the atmosphere, where aerosol particles have a longer lifetime and may affect climate dynamics. In this study, we used data from two high-Alpine observatories, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (ZSF) and Jungfraujoch (JFJ), to assess the long-term trends on size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) and equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration separated for undisturbed lower FT conditions and under the influence of air from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) from 2009 to 2018. Results: The FT and PBL-influenced conditions were segregated for both sites. We found that the FT conditions in cold months were more prevalent than in warm months, while the measured aerosol parameters showed different seasonal patterns for the FT and PBL-influenced conditions. The pollutants in the PBL-influenced condition have a higher chance to be transported to high-altitudes due to the mountainous topography, leading to a higher concentration and more distinct seasonal variation, and vice versa. The long-term trends of the measured aerosol parameters were evaluated and the decreased aerosol concentrations were observed for both FT and PBL-influenced conditions. The observed decreasing trends in eBC concentration in the PBL-influenced condition are well consistent with the reported trends in total BC emission in Germany and Switzerland. The decreased concentrations in the FT condition suggest that the background aerosol concentration in the lower FT over Central Europe has correspondingly decreased. The change of back trajectories in the FT condition at ZSF and JFJ was further evaluated to investigate the other possible drivers for the decreasing trends. Conclusions: The background aerosol concentration in the lower FT over Central Europe has significantly decreased during 2009–2018. The implementation of emission mitigation policies is the most decisive factor and the decrease of the regional airmass occurrence over Central Europe also has contributed to the decreasing trends. © 2021, The Author(s).