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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
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    On phase change of a vapor bubble in liquid water
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2009) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Duderstadt, Frank; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald
    We consider a bubble of vapor and inert gas surrounded by the corresponding liquid phase. We study the behavior of the bubble due to phase change, i.e. condensation and evaporation, at the interface. Special attention is given to the effects of surface tension and heat production on the bubble dynamics as well as the propagation of acoustic elastic waves by including slight compressibility of the liquid phase. Separately we study the influence of the three phenomena heat conduction, elastic waves, and phase transition on the evolution of the bubble. The objective is to derive relations including the mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the phases. We find ordinary differential equations, in the cases of heat transfer and the emission of acoustic waves partial differential equations, that describe the bubble dynamics. From numerical evidence we deduce that the effect of phase transition and heat transfer on the behavior of the radius of the bubble is negligible. It turns out that the elastic waves in the liquid are of greatest importance to the dynamics of the bubble radius. The phase transition has a strong influence on the evolution of the temperature, in particular at the interface. Furthermore the phase transition leads to a drastic change of the water content in the bubble, so that a rebounding bubble is only possible, if it contains in addition an inert gas. In a forthcoming paper the equations derived are sought in order to close equations for multi-phase mixture balance laws for dispersed bubbles in liquids involving phase change. Also the model is used to make comparisons with experimental data on the oscillation of a laser induced bubble. For this case it was necessary to include the effect of an inert gas in the thermodynamic modeling of the phase transition
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    A model for the austenite-ferrite phase transition in steel including misfit stress
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2008) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Hömberg, Dietmar; Petzold, Thomas
    We present a thermodynamically consistent model to describe the austenite-ferrite phase transition in steel. We consider the influence of the mechanical displacement field due to eigenstrains caused by volumetric expansion. The model equations are derived in a systematical framework. They are based on the conservation laws for mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. By means of numerical computations for a simplified interface controlled model, we examine the influence of the mechanical contributions to the transformation kinetics and the equilibrium states.
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    On unwanted nucleation phenomena at the wall of a VGF chamber
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2008) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Duderstadt, Frank; Eichler, Stefan; Naldzhieva, Margarita
    This is preliminary study on a phenomenon that happens during crystal growth of GaAs in a vertical gradient freeze (VGF) device. Here unwanted polycrystals nucleate at the chamber wall and move into the interior of the crystal. This happens within an undercooled region in the vicinity of the triple point, where the liquid-solid interface meets the chamber wall. The size and shape of that region is modelled by the Gibbs-Thomson law, which will be rederived in this paper. Hereafter we identify the crucial parameter, whose proper adjustment may minimize the undercooled region.
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    Mean field diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2009) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim
    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation.
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    Phase transition and hysteresis in a rechargeable lithium battery
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2007) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Gaberšček, Miran; Jamnik, Janko
    We represent a model which describes the evolution of a phase transition that occurs in some part of a rechargeable lithium battery during the process of charging/discharging. The model is capable to simulate the hysteretic behavior of the voltage - charge characteristics. During discharging of the battery, the interstitial lattice sites of a small crystalline host system are filled up with lithium atoms and these are released again during charging. We show within the context of a sharp interface model that two mechanical phenomena go along with a phase transition that appears in the host system during supply and removal of lithium. At first the lithium atoms need more space than it is available by the interstitial lattice sites, which leads to a maximal relative change of the crystal volume of about $6%$. Furthermore there is an interface between two adjacent phases that has very large curvature of the order of magnitude 100 m, which evoke here a discontinuity of the normal component of the stress. In order to simulate the dynamics of the phase transitions and in particular the observed hysteresis we establish a new initial and boundary value problem for a nonlinear PDE system that can be reduced in some limiting case to an ODE system.
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    The sharp interface limit of the Van der Waals-Cahn-Hilliard phase model for fixed and time dependent domains
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2006) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Kraus, Christiane
    We study the equilibria of liquid--vapor phase transitions of a single substance at constant temperature and relate the sharp interface model of classical thermodynamics to a phase field model that determines the equilibria by the stationary van der Waals--Cahn--Hilliard theory. For two reasons we reconsider this old problem. 1. Equilibria in a two phase system can be established either under fixed total volume of the system or under fixed external pressure. The latter case implies that the domain of the two--phase system varies. However, in the mathematical literature rigorous sharp interface limits of phase transitions are usually considered under fixed volume. This brings the necessity to extend the existing tools for rigorous sharp interface limits to changing domains since in nature most processes involving phase transitions run at constant pressure. 2. Thermodynamics provides for a single substance two jump conditions at the sharp interface, viz. the continuity of the specific Gibbs free energies of the adjacent phases and the discontinuity of the corresponding pressures, which is balanced by the mean curvature. The existing estimates for rigorous sharp interface limits show only the first condition ...
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    A higher gradient theory of mixtures for multi-component materials with numerical examples for binary alloys
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2007) Böhme, Thomas; Dreyer, Wolfgang; Duderstadt, Frank; Müller, Wolfgang H.
    A theory of mixture for multi-component materials is presented based on a novel, straightforward method for the exploitation of the Second Law of thermodynamics. In particular the constitutive equations for entropy, heat and diffusion flux as well as the stress tensor are formulated as a consequence of the non-negative entropy production. Furthermore we derive the established Gibbs equation as well as the Gibbs Duhem relation which also follow from the formalism. Moreover, it is illustrated, how local mechanical strains due to eigenstrains or external loadings, modify the free energy and, consequently, change the chemical potentials of the components. All consecutive steps are illustrated, first, for simple mixtures and, second, for a system containing two different phases. So-called higher gradients of the concentrations are considered, which take the nonuniform composition into account. It will also become apparent that more/other variables of modified/different physical pr oblems beyond the illustrated ones can be easily treated within the presented framework. This work ends with the specification to binary alloys and with the presentation of various numerical simulations.
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    Hysteresis in the context of hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2009) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert
    The processes of reversible storage of hydrogen in a metal by loading and unloading and of charging and discharging of lithium-ion batteries have many things in common. The both processes are accompanied by a phase transition and loading and unloading run along different paths, so that hysteretic behavior is observed. For hydrogen storage we consider a fine powder of magnesium (Mg) particles and lithium storage is studied for iron phosphate (FePO_4) particles forming the cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The mathematical models that are established in citeDGJ08 and citeDGH09a, describe phase transitions and hysteresis exclusively in a single particle and on that basis they can predict the observed hysteretic plots with almost horizontal plateaus. Interestingly the models predict that the coexistence of a 2-phase system in an individual particle disappears, if its size is below a critical value. However, measurements reveal that this is qualitatively not reflected by the mentioned hysteretic plots of loading and unloading. In other words: The behavior of a storage system consisting of many particles is qualitatively independent of the fact whether the individual particles itself develop a 2-phase system or if they remain in a single phase state. This apparent paradoxical observation will be resolved in this article. It will be shown that if each of the individual particles homogeneously distributes the supplied matter, nevertheless the many particle ensemble exhibits phase transition and hysteresis, because one of the two phases is realized in some part of the particles while the remaining part is in the other phase.
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    The behavior of a many particle cathode in a lithium-ion battery
    (Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2009) Dreyer, Wolfgang; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert
    We study the almost reversible storage process of charging and discharging of lithium-ion batteries. That process is accompanied by a phase transition and charging and discharging run along different paths, so that hysteretic behavior is observed. We are interested in the storage problem of the cathode of a lithium-ion battery consisting of a system of many iron phosphate (FePO4) particles. There are mathematical models, see [DGJ08], [DGGHJ09] and [DG09], that describe phase transitions and hysteresis exclusively in a single storage particle and they can describe the observed hysteretic voltage-charge plots with almost horizontal plateaus. Interestingly the models predict that the coexistence of a 2-phase system in an individual particle disappears, if its size is below a critical value. The disappearance of the phase transition in the single particle model implies the disappearance of the hysteresis. However, in the experiment hysteretic behavior survives. In other words: The behavior of a storage system consisting of many particles is qualitatively independent of the fact whether the individual particles itself develop a 2-phase system or if they remain in a single phase state. This apparent paradoxical observation will be resolved in this article by a many particle model. It will be shown that if each of the individual particles is in a homogeneous state, nevertheless the many particle ensemble exhibits phase transition and hysteresis ...