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    Influence of diluted acid mixtures on selective etching of MHz- and kHz-fs-laser inscribed structures in YAG
    (Washington, DC : OSA, 2021) Hasse, Kore; Kip, Detlef; Kränkel, Christian
    We show that the inscription velocity of fs-laser written structures in YAG crystals can be significantly improved by the use of MHz repetition rates for the writing process. Using a 10 MHz inscription laser, record high writing velocities up to 100 mm/s are achieved. Also, the selective etching process is accelerated using a diluted mixture of 22% H3PO4 and 24% H2SO4. The diluted mixture enables selective etching of up to 9.6 mm long, 1 µm wide and 18 µm high microchannels in 23 days. The etching parameter D of 11.2 µm2/s is a factor of 3 higher than previously reported and the selectivity is even increased by an order of magnitude.
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    Batch and continuous lactic acid fermentation based on a multi-substrate approach
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Olszewska-Widdrat, Agata; Alexandri, Maria; López-Gómez, José Pablo; Schneider, Roland; Venus, Joachim
    The utilisation of waste materials and industrial residues became a priority within the bioeconomy concept and the production of biobased chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to continuously produce L-lactic acid from different renewable substrates, in a multi-substrate strategy mode. Based on batch experiments observations, Bacillus coagulans A534 strain was able to continuously metabolise acid whey, sugar beet molasses, sugar bread, alfalfa press green juice and tapioca starch. Additionally, reference experiments showed its behaviour in standard medium. Continuous fermentations indicated that the highest productivity was achieved when molasses was employed with a value of 10.34 g·L−1·h−1, while the lactic acid to sugar conversion yield was 0.86 g·g−1 . This study demonstrated that LA can be efficiently produced in continuous mode regardless the substrate, which is a huge advantage in comparison to other platform chemicals. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Dynamical phenomena in complex networks: fundamentals and applications
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2021) Yanchuk, Serhiy; Roque, Antonio C.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Kurths, Jürgen
    This special issue presents a series of 33 contributions in the area of dynamical networks and their applications. Part of the contributions is devoted to theoretical and methodological aspects of dynamical networks, such as collective dynamics of excitable systems, spreading processes, coarsening, synchronization, delayed interactions, and others. A particular focus is placed on applications to neuroscience and Earth science, especially functional climate networks. Among the highlights, various methods for dealing with noise and stochastic processes in neuroscience are presented. A method for constructing weighted networks with arbitrary topologies from a single dynamical node with delayed feedback is introduced. Also, a generalization of the concept of geodesic distances, a path-integral formulation of network-based measures is developed, which provides fundamental insights into the dynamics of disease transmission. The contributions from the Earth science application field substantiate predictive power of climate networks to study challenging Earth processes and phenomena.
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    Engineering new limits to magnetostriction through metastability in iron-gallium alloys
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Meisenheimer, P.B.; Steinhardt, R.A.; Sung, S.H.; Williams, L.D.; Zhuang, S.; Nowakowski, M.E.; Novakov, S.; Torunbalci, M.M.; Prasad, B.; Zollner, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Dawley, N.M.; Schubert, J.; Hunter, A.H.; Manipatruni, S.; Nikonov, D.E.; Young, I.A.; Chen, L.Q.; Bokor, J.; Bhave, S.A.; Ramesh, R.; Hu, J.-M.; Kioupakis, E.; Hovden, R.; Schlom, D.G.; Heron, J.T.
    Magnetostrictive materials transduce magnetic and mechanical energies and when combined with piezoelectric elements, evoke magnetoelectric transduction for high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors and energy-efficient beyond-CMOS technologies. The dearth of ductile, rare-earth-free materials with high magnetostrictive coefficients motivates the discovery of superior materials. Fe1−xGax alloys are amongst the highest performing rare-earth-free magnetostrictive materials; however, magnetostriction becomes sharply suppressed beyond x = 19% due to the formation of a parasitic ordered intermetallic phase. Here, we harness epitaxy to extend the stability of the BCC Fe1−xGax alloy to gallium compositions as high as x = 30% and in so doing dramatically boost the magnetostriction by as much as 10x relative to the bulk and 2x larger than canonical rare-earth based magnetostrictors. A Fe1−xGax − [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7−[PbTiO3]0.3 (PMN-PT) composite magnetoelectric shows robust 90° electrical switching of magnetic anisotropy and a converse magnetoelectric coefficient of 2.0 × 10−5 s m−1. When optimally scaled, this high coefficient implies stable switching at ~80 aJ per bit.
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    Spontaneous fluctuations in a plasma ion assisted deposition – correlation between deposition conditions and vanadium oxide thin film growth
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Frank, Anna; Dias, Miguel; Hieke, Stefan; Kruth, Angela; Scheu, Christina
    In this work correlations between thin film crystallinity of plasma ion assisted electron beam evaporated vanadium oxide (VOx) and fluctuations of the deposition parameters during the growth process could be observed by in situ monitoring deposition conditions and electron microscopy studies. In the presented case, unintentional fluctuations in the gas flow at the plasma source caused by inhomogeneous melting of the target material lead to an increase in discharge current and therefore a decrease of the oxygen flow in the plasma source, resulting in the formation of highly crystalline bands due to a temporary increase in energy flux. The major part of the VOx thin film consists of a large number of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous phase. In-depth structural analysis confirms a mixture of V2O5, in different modifications, VO2, as well as the mixed-valence oxides V4O9 and V6O13, for nanocrystalline parts and crystalline bands. These differ mainly in the degree of crystallinity being influenced by variations in discharge current, and partly in the amount of higher oxidized vanadium oxides. In future, precisely controlled variation of plasma source conditions will open up pathways to control and tailor crystallinity of electron beam evaporated thin films, allowing for production methods for patterned thin films or layers with graduated crystallinity. This may give rise to a new class of coatings of nanohybrids combining amorphous VOx with low electrical conductivity and crystalline domains providing a higher electrical conductivity which is useful for electrochromic displays, smart windows, and solar cells.
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    Electron-to Hole Transport Change Induced by Solvent Vapor Annealing of Naphthalene Diimide Doped with Poly(3-Hexylthiophene)
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2021) Janus, Krzysztof; Danielewicz, Kinga; Chlebosz, Dorota; Goldeman, Waldemar; Kiersnowski, Adam
    Herein we report on fabrication and properties of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on the spray-coated films of N,N′-dioctyl naphthalene diimide (NDIC8) doped with 2.4 wt% of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). OFETs with the untreated NDIC8:P3HT films revealed electron conductivity [μe* = 5 × 10–4 cm2×(Vs)−1]. After the annealing in chloroform vapor the NDIC8:P3HT films revealed the hole transport only [μh* = 0.9 × 10–4 cm2×(Vs)−1]. Due to the chemical nature and energy levels, the hole transport was not expected for NDIC8-based system. Polarized optical- and scanning electron microscopies indicated that the solvent vapor annealing of the NDIC8:P3HT films caused a transition of their fine-grained morphology to the network of branched, dendritic crystallites. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering studies indicated that the above transition was accompanied by a change in the crystal structure of NDIC8. The isotropic crystal structure of NDIC8 in the untreated film was identical to the known crystal structure of the bulk NDIC8. After the solvent annealing the crystal structure of NDIC8 changed to a not-yet-reported polymorph, that, unlike in the untreated film, was partially oriented with respect to the OFET substrate.
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    Publisher Correction: Multiple fermion scattering in the weakly coupled spin-chain compound YbAlO3 (Nature Communications, (2021), 12, 1, (3599), 10.1038/s41467-021-23585-z)
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Nikitin, S.E.; Nishimoto, S.; Fan, Y.; Wu, J.; Wu, L.S.; Sukhanov, A.S.; Brando, M.; Pavlovskii, N.S.; Xu, J.; Vasylechko, L.; Yu, R.; Podlesnyak, A.
    [No abstract available]
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    Study of Water Productivity of Industrial Hemp under Hot and Dry Conditions in Brandenburg (Germany) in the Year 2018
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Drastig, Katrin; Flemming, Inken; Gusovius, Hans-Jörg; Herppich, Werner B.
    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a high-yielding multi-purpose crop, but its hydrological functioning is poorly understood. Studies on the interception processes in hemp have been lacking so far. This study contributes to the understanding of the influences of evaporation of intercepted water and other hydrological fluxes within plants of two cultivars, “Santhica 27” and “Ivory”, on the water productivity. To determine water productivity and evaporation from interception, field measurements were conducted on plants of both cultivars at different stages of development. Precipitation (P), throughfall (TF), transpiration (T), and volumetric water content (VWC) were measured along with leaf area index (LAI) and yield of selected plant components. For the entire vegetation period, the cumulative P of 44 mm was converted into 13 mm TF (30%). The inferred evaporation of intercepted water (I) was high at 31 mm (71%). For the assessment water fluxes, the evaporation of intercepted water must be considered in the decision-making process. Besides the LAI, the plant architecture and the meteorological conditions during the cropping cycle seem to be the main factors determining I in the case of plants of both cultivars. Water productivity (WPDM) of the whole plant varied between 3.07 kg m−3 for Ivory and 3.49 for Santhica 27. In the case of bast yield, WPDM was 0.39 kg m-3 for Santhica 27 and 0.45 kg m−3 for Ivory. After the propagation of the uncertainties, the bandwidth of the WPDM of the whole plant was between 0.42 kg m−3 and 2.57 kg m−3. For bast fiber a bandwidth of the WP between 0.06 kg m−3 and 0.33 kg m−3 was calculated. The results show furthermore that even with a precise examination of water productivity, a high bandwidth of local values is revealed on different cultivars. However, generic WP values for fiber crops are not attainable.
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    Membrane Functionalization in Pilot Scale: Roll‐to‐Roll Electron Beam System with Inline Contact Angle Determination
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Schulze, Agnes; Drößler, Lutz; Weiß, Steffen; Went, Marco; Abdul Latif, Amira; Breite, Daniel; Fischer, Kristina
    To increase the permeation performance and antifouling properties of polymer membranes, a one-step reaction using electron irradiation was developed. This process combines the surface activation of the membrane polymer and the simultaneous permanent immobilization of hydrophilic molecules. This technology can be applied to various polymers, flat sheet/hollow fiber membranes and all pore ranges. The roll-to-roll system developed for this enables all process steps including inline analysis for quality control of the membrane surface in a continuously operated system. © 2021 The Authors. Chemie Ingenieur Technik published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Field-induced interactions in magneto-active elastomers - a comparison of experiments and simulations
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Metsch, P.; Schmidt, H.; Sindersberger, D.; Kalina, K.A.; Brummund, J.; Auernhammer, G.K.; Monkman, G.J.; Kästner, M.
    In this contribution, field-induced interactions of magnetizable particles embedded into a soft elastomer matrix are analyzed with regard to the resulting mechanical deformations. By comparing experiments for two-, three- and four-particle systems with the results of finite element simulations, a fully coupled continuum model for magneto-active elastomers is validated with the help of real data for the first time. The model under consideration permits the investigation of magneto-active elastomers with arbitrary particle distances, shapes and volume fractions as well as magnetic and mechanical properties of the individual constituents. It thus represents a basis for future studies on more complex, realistic systems. Our results show a very good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations—the deformation behavior of all systems is captured by the model qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Within a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the initial particle positions on the systems' response is examined. Furthermore, a comparison of the full three-dimensional model with the often used, simplified two-dimensional approach shows the typical overestimation of resulting interactions in magneto-active elastomers.