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Now showing 1 - 10 of 573
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    Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2017-06-16) Callegari, Carlo; Takanashi, Tsukasa; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Matsunami, Kenji; Johnsson, Per; Piseri, Paolo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Dubrouil, Antoine; Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Vozzi, Caterina; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Calegari, Francesca; Castrovilli, Mattea; Coreno, Marcello; Alagia, Michele; Schütte, Bernd; Berrah, Nora; Plekan, Oksana; Finetti, Paola; Ferrari, Eugenio; Prince, Kevin; Ueda, Kiyoshi
    Pump-probe experiments are commonly used at Free Electron Lasers (FEL) to elucidate the femtosecond dynamics of atoms, molecules, clusters, liquids and solids. Maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements is often a primary need of the experiment, and the aggregation of repeated, rapid, scans of the pump-probe delay is preferable to a single long-lasting scan. The limited availability of beamtime makes it impractical to repeat measurements indiscriminately, and the large, rapid flow of single-shot data that need to be processed and aggregated into a dataset, makes it difficult to assess the quality of a measurement in real time. In post-analysis it is then necessary to devise unbiased criteria to select or reject datasets, and to assign the weight with which they enter the analysis. One such case was the measurement of the lifetime of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay in the weakly-bound neon dimer. We report on the method we used to accomplish this goal for the pump-probe delay scans that constitute the core of the measurement; namely we report on the use of simple auto- and cross-correlation techniques based on the general concept of “matched filter”. We are able to unambiguously assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each scan, which then becomes the weight with which a scan enters the average of multiple scans. We also observe a clear gap in the values of SNR, and we discard all the scans below a SNR of 0.45. We are able to generate an average delay scan profile, suitable for further analysis: in our previous work we used it for comparison with theory. Here we argue that the method is sufficiently simple and devoid of human action to be applicable not only in post-analysis, but also for the real-time assessment of the quality of a dataset.
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    Research Update: Van-der-Waals epitaxy of layered chalcogenide Sb2Te3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publ., 2017) Hilmi, Isom; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Schumacher, Philipp; Rauschenbach, Bernd
    An attempt to deposit a high quality epitaxial thin film of a two-dimensionally bonded (layered) chalcogenide material with van-der-Waals (vdW) epitaxy is of strong interest for non-volatile memory application. In this paper, the epitaxial growth of an exemplary layered chalcogenide material, i.e., stoichiometric Sb2Te3 thin films, is reported. The films were produced on unreconstructed highly lattice-mismatched Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were grown by vdW epitaxy in a two-dimensional mode. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the films possess a trigonal Sb2Te3 structure. The single atomic Sb/Te termination layer on the Si surface was formed initializing the thin film growth. This work demonstrates a straightforward method to deposit vdW-epitaxial layered chalcogenides and, at the same time, opens up the feasibility to fabricate chalcogenide vdW heterostructures by PLD.
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    Field-induced interactions in magneto-active elastomers - a comparison of experiments and simulations
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Metsch, P.; Schmidt, H.; Sindersberger, D.; Kalina, K.A.; Brummund, J.; Auernhammer, G.K.; Monkman, G.J.; Kästner, M.
    In this contribution, field-induced interactions of magnetizable particles embedded into a soft elastomer matrix are analyzed with regard to the resulting mechanical deformations. By comparing experiments for two-, three- and four-particle systems with the results of finite element simulations, a fully coupled continuum model for magneto-active elastomers is validated with the help of real data for the first time. The model under consideration permits the investigation of magneto-active elastomers with arbitrary particle distances, shapes and volume fractions as well as magnetic and mechanical properties of the individual constituents. It thus represents a basis for future studies on more complex, realistic systems. Our results show a very good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations—the deformation behavior of all systems is captured by the model qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Within a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the initial particle positions on the systems' response is examined. Furthermore, a comparison of the full three-dimensional model with the often used, simplified two-dimensional approach shows the typical overestimation of resulting interactions in magneto-active elastomers.
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    Temperature-dependent dynamic compressive properties and failure mechanisms of the additively manufactured CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy
    (Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2022) Chen, Hongyu; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Di; Kosiba, Konrad
    CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy (HEA) parts were fabricated by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), and their dynamic compressive properties at different temperatures as well as the resulting microstructures were analyzed. The HEAs showed an unprecedented strength-ductility combination, especially at a cryogenic temperature of 77 K and a high strain rate of 3000 s−1. Under this testing condition, the yield strength (YS) of the HEAs amounted to 665 MPa. Regardless of the testing temperature, the deformation mechanism of all investigated HEAs was dominated by a synergistic effect consisting of deformation twinning and dislocation pile-up around twins. The fraction of twin boundaries and dislocation density within the deformed microstructure of the HEA correlated with the test temperature. At 77 K, the formation of nanotwins together with dislocation slip prevailed and contributed to pronounced twin-twin and twin-dislocation interactions which effectively restricted the dislocation movement and, hence, contributed to a higher YS as well as strain hardening rate in comparison to that of the HEAs at room temperature of 298 K. The LPBF-fabricated HEAs showed unpronounced thermal softening even at a high testing temperature of 1073 K. Continuous dynamic recrystallization was restricted in the HEA because of its inherent sluggish dislocation kinetics and low stacking fault energy.
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    Vortex Motions in the Solar Atmosphere: Definitions, Theory, Observations, and Modelling
    (Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2023) Tziotziou, K.; Scullion, E.; Shelyag, S.; Steiner, O.; Khomenko, E.; Tsiropoula, G.; Canivete Cuissa, J.R.; Wedemeyer, S.; Kontogiannis, I.; Yadav, N.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Skirvin, S.J.; Dakanalis, I.; Kosovichev, A.G.; Fedun, V.
    Vortex flows, related to solar convective turbulent dynamics at granular scales and their interplay with magnetic fields within intergranular lanes, occur abundantly on the solar surface and in the atmosphere above. Their presence is revealed in high-resolution and high-cadence solar observations from the ground and from space and with state-of-the-art magnetoconvection simulations. Vortical flows exhibit complex characteristics and dynamics, excite a wide range of different waves, and couple different layers of the solar atmosphere, which facilitates the channeling and transfer of mass, momentum and energy from the solar surface up to the low corona. Here we provide a comprehensive review of documented research and new developments in theory, observations, and modelling of vortices over the past couple of decades after their observational discovery, including recent observations in Hα, innovative detection techniques, diverse hydrostatic modelling of waves and forefront magnetohydrodynamic simulations incorporating effects of a non-ideal plasma. It is the first systematic overview of solar vortex flows at granular scales, a field with a plethora of names for phenomena that exhibit similarities and differences and often interconnect and rely on the same physics. With the advent of the 4-m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the forthcoming European Solar Telescope, the ongoing Solar Orbiter mission, and the development of cutting-edge simulations, this review timely addresses the state-of-the-art on vortex flows and outlines both theoretical and observational future research directions.
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    Human spermbots for patient-representative 3D ovarian cancer cell treatment
    (Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2020) Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Zhang, Wunan; Seaton, Melanie P. H.; Brison, Daniel R.; Edmondson, Richard J.; Taylor, Stephen S.; Nelson, Louisa; Zeng, Kang; Bagley, Steven; Ribeiro, Carla; Restrepo, Lina P.; Lucena, Elkin; Schmidt, Christine K.; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Cellular micromotors are attractive for locally delivering high concentrations of drug, and targeting hard-to-reach disease sites such as cervical cancer and early ovarian cancer lesions by non-invasive means. Spermatozoa are highly efficient micromotors perfectly adapted to traveling up the female reproductive system. Indeed, bovine sperm-based micromotors have shown potential to carry drugs toward gynecological cancers. However, due to major differences in the molecular make-up of bovine and human sperm, a key translational bottleneck for bringing this technology closer to the clinic is to transfer this concept to human material. Here, we successfully load human sperm with Doxorubicin (DOX) and perform treatment of 3D cervical cancer and patient-representative ovarian cancer cell cultures, resulting in strong anticancer cell effects. Additionally, we define the subcellular localization of the chemotherapeutic drug within human sperm, using high-resolution optical microscopy. We also assess drug effects on sperm motility and viability over time, employing sperm samples from healthy donors as well as assisted reproduction patients. Finally, we demonstrate guidance and release of human drug-loaded sperm onto cancer tissues using magnetic microcaps, and show the sperm microcap loaded with a second anticancer drug, camptothecin (CPT), which unlike DOX is not suitable for directly loading into sperm due to its hydrophobic nature. This co-drug delivery approach opens up novel targeted combinatorial drug therapies for future applications. © 2020 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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    Enhanced tenacity of mycobacterial aerosols from necrotic neutrophils
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Pfrommer, E.; Dreier, C.; Gabriel, G.; Dallenga, T.; Reimer, R.; Schepanski, K.; Scherließ, R.; Schaible, U.E.; Gutsmann, T.
    The tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily transmitted through air, but little is known about the tenacity of mycobacterium-containing aerosols derived from either suspensions or infected neutrophils. Analysis of mycobacterial aerosol particles generated from bacterial suspensions revealed an average aerodynamic diameter and mass density that may allow distant airborne transmission. The volume and mass of mycobacterial aerosol particles increased with elevated relative humidity. To more closely mimic aerosol formation that occurs in active TB patients, aerosols from mycobacterium-infected neutrophils were analysed. Mycobacterium-infected intact neutrophils showed a smaller particle size distribution and lower viability than free mycobacteria. In contrast, mycobacterium-infected necrotic neutrophils, predominant in M. tuberculosis infection, revealed particle sizes and viability rates similar to those found for free mycobacteria, but in addition, larger aggregates of viable mycobacteria were observed. Therefore, mycobacteria are shielded from environmental stresses in multibacillary aggregates generated from necrotic neutrophils, which allows improved tenacity but emphasizes short distance transmission between close contacts.
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    Plasma-derived reactive species shape a differentiation profile in human monocytes
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Freund, Eric; Moritz, Juliane; Stope, Matthias; Seebauer, Christian; Schmidt, Anke; Bekeschus, Sander
    Background: Monocyte-derived macrophages are key regulators and producers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that cold physical plasma may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory conditions via the release of ROS/RNS. However, it is unknown how plasma treatment affects monocytes and their differentiation profile. Methods: Naïve or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-pulsed THP-1 monocytes were exposed to cold physical plasma. The cells were analyzed regarding their metabolic activity as well as flow cytometry (analysis of viability, oxidation, surface marker expression and cytokine secretion) and high content imaging (quantitative analysis of morphology. Results: The plasma treatment affected THP-1 metabolisms, viability, and morphology. Furthermore, a significant modulation CD55, CD69, CD271 surface-expression and increase of inflammatory IL1β, IL6, IL8, and MCP1 secretion was observed upon plasma treatment. Distinct phenotypical changes in THP-1 cells arguing for a differentiation profile were validated in primary monocytes from donor blood. As a functional outcome, plasma-treated monocytes decreased the viability of co-cultured melanoma cells to a greater extent than their non-treated counterparts. Conclusions: Our results suggest plasma-derived ROS/RNS shaped a differentiation profile in human monocytes as evidenced by their increased inflammatory profile (surface marker and cytokines) as well as functional outcome (tumor toxicity). © 2019 by the authors.
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    A manual and an automatic TERS based virus discrimination
    (Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2015) Olschewski, Konstanze; Kämmer, Evelyn; Stöckel, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Zell, Roland; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen
    Rapid techniques for virus identification are more relevant today than ever. Conventional virus detection and identification strategies generally rest upon various microbiological methods and genomic approaches, which are not suited for the analysis of single virus particles. In contrast, the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) allows the characterisation of biological nano-structures like virions on a single-particle level. In this study, the feasibility of TERS in combination with chemometrics to discriminate two pathogenic viruses, Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Porcine teschovirus (PTV), was investigated. In a first step, chemometric methods transformed the spectral data in such a way that a rapid visual discrimination of the two examined viruses was enabled. In a further step, these methods were utilised to perform an automatic quality rating of the measured spectra. Spectra that passed this test were eventually used to calculate a classification model, through which a successful discrimination of the two viral species based on TERS spectra of single virus particles was also realised with a classification accuracy of 91%.
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    Giant refractometric sensitivity by combining extreme optical Vernier effect and modal interference
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Gomes, André D.; Kobelke, Jens; Bierlich, Jörg; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando
    The optical Vernier effect consists of overlapping responses of a sensing and a reference interferometer with slightly shifted interferometric frequencies. The beating modulation thus generated presents high magnified sensitivity and resolution compared to the sensing interferometer, if the two interferometers are slightly out of tune with each other. However, the outcome of such a condition is a large beating modulation, immeasurable by conventional detection systems due to practical limitations of the usable spectral range. We propose a method to surpass this limitation by using a few-mode sensing interferometer instead of a single-mode one. The overlap response of the different modes produces a measurable envelope, whilst preserving an extremely high magnification factor, an order of magnification higher than current state-of-the-art performances. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of that method in the development of a giant sensitivity fibre refractometer with a sensitivity of around 500 µm/RIU (refractive index unit) and with a magnification factor over 850.