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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1954
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    Ultrafast inter-ionic charge transfer of transition-metal complexes mapped by femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2013) Zamponi, F.; Freyer, B.; Juvé, V.; Stingl, J.; Woerner, M.; Chergui, M.; Elsaesser, T.
    Transient electron density maps are derived from x-ray diffraction patterns of photoexcited [Fe(bpy)3]2+(PF6 -)2 powder. Upon photoexcitation, the 5T 2 quintet state reveals a charge transfer from the PF 6- ions and from the Fe atoms to neighboring bpy units. The charge transfer from the Fe points to a partial and weak charge-transfer character of this state.
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    The spin-flip scattering effect in the spin transport in silicon doped with bismuth
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2017) Ezhevskii, A.A.; Detochenko, A.P.; Soukhorukov, A.V.; Guseinov, D.V.; Kudrin, A.V.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Riemann, H.
    Spin transport of conduction electrons in silicon samples doped with bismuth in the 1.1•1013 - 7.7•1015 cm-3 concentration range was studied by the Hall effect measurements. The dependence of the Hall voltage magnitude on the magnetic field is the sum of the normal and spin Hall effects. The electrons are partially polarized by an external magnetic field and are scattered by the bismuth spin-orbit potential. Spin-flip scattering results in the additional electromotive force which compensates the normal Hall effect in strong magnetic fields.
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    Axial GaAs/Ga(As, Bi) nanowire heterostructures
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Oliva, Miriam; Gao, Guanhui; Luna, Esperanza; Geelhaar, Lutz; Lewis, Ryan B
    Bi-containing III-V semiconductors constitute an exciting class of metastable compounds with wide-ranging potential optoelectronic and electronic applications. However, the growth of III-V-Bi alloys requires group-III-rich growth conditions, which pose severe challenges for planar growth. In this work, we exploit the naturally-Ga-rich environment present inside the metallic droplet of a self-catalyzed GaAs nanowire (NW) to synthesize metastable GaAs/GaAs1-xBi x axial NW heterostructures with high Bi contents. The axial GaAs1-xBi x segments are realized with molecular beam epitaxy by first enriching only the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Ga droplets with Bi, followed by exposing the resulting Ga-Bi droplets to As2 at temperatures ranging from 270 °C to 380 °C to precipitate GaAs1-xBi x only under the NW droplets. Microstructural and elemental characterization reveals the presence of single crystal zincblende GaAs1-xBi x axial NW segments with Bi contents up to (10 ± 2)%. This work illustrates how the unique local growth environment present during the VLS NW growth can be exploited to synthesize heterostructures with metastable compounds. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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    Dynamical phenomena in complex networks: fundamentals and applications
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2021) Yanchuk, Serhiy; Roque, Antonio C.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Kurths, Jürgen
    This special issue presents a series of 33 contributions in the area of dynamical networks and their applications. Part of the contributions is devoted to theoretical and methodological aspects of dynamical networks, such as collective dynamics of excitable systems, spreading processes, coarsening, synchronization, delayed interactions, and others. A particular focus is placed on applications to neuroscience and Earth science, especially functional climate networks. Among the highlights, various methods for dealing with noise and stochastic processes in neuroscience are presented. A method for constructing weighted networks with arbitrary topologies from a single dynamical node with delayed feedback is introduced. Also, a generalization of the concept of geodesic distances, a path-integral formulation of network-based measures is developed, which provides fundamental insights into the dynamics of disease transmission. The contributions from the Earth science application field substantiate predictive power of climate networks to study challenging Earth processes and phenomena.
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    Engineering new limits to magnetostriction through metastability in iron-gallium alloys
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Meisenheimer, P.B.; Steinhardt, R.A.; Sung, S.H.; Williams, L.D.; Zhuang, S.; Nowakowski, M.E.; Novakov, S.; Torunbalci, M.M.; Prasad, B.; Zollner, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Dawley, N.M.; Schubert, J.; Hunter, A.H.; Manipatruni, S.; Nikonov, D.E.; Young, I.A.; Chen, L.Q.; Bokor, J.; Bhave, S.A.; Ramesh, R.; Hu, J.-M.; Kioupakis, E.; Hovden, R.; Schlom, D.G.; Heron, J.T.
    Magnetostrictive materials transduce magnetic and mechanical energies and when combined with piezoelectric elements, evoke magnetoelectric transduction for high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors and energy-efficient beyond-CMOS technologies. The dearth of ductile, rare-earth-free materials with high magnetostrictive coefficients motivates the discovery of superior materials. Fe1−xGax alloys are amongst the highest performing rare-earth-free magnetostrictive materials; however, magnetostriction becomes sharply suppressed beyond x = 19% due to the formation of a parasitic ordered intermetallic phase. Here, we harness epitaxy to extend the stability of the BCC Fe1−xGax alloy to gallium compositions as high as x = 30% and in so doing dramatically boost the magnetostriction by as much as 10x relative to the bulk and 2x larger than canonical rare-earth based magnetostrictors. A Fe1−xGax − [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7−[PbTiO3]0.3 (PMN-PT) composite magnetoelectric shows robust 90° electrical switching of magnetic anisotropy and a converse magnetoelectric coefficient of 2.0 × 10−5 s m−1. When optimally scaled, this high coefficient implies stable switching at ~80 aJ per bit.
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    Topology determines force distributions in one-dimensional random spring networks
    (Woodbury, NY : Inst., 2018) Heidemann, Knut M.; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Sharma, Abhinav; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wardetzky, Max
    Networks of elastic fibers are ubiquitous in biological systems and often provide mechanical stability to cells and tissues. Fiber-reinforced materials are also common in technology. An important characteristic of such materials is their resistance to failure under load. Rupture occurs when fibers break under excessive force and when that failure propagates. Therefore, it is crucial to understand force distributions. Force distributions within such networks are typically highly inhomogeneous and are not well understood. Here we construct a simple one-dimensional model system with periodic boundary conditions by randomly placing linear springs on a circle. We consider ensembles of such networks that consist of N nodes and have an average degree of connectivity z but vary in topology. Using a graph-theoretical approach that accounts for the full topology of each network in the ensemble, we show that, surprisingly, the force distributions can be fully characterized in terms of the parameters (N,z). Despite the universal properties of such (N,z) ensembles, our analysis further reveals that a classical mean-field approach fails to capture force distributions correctly. We demonstrate that network topology is a crucial determinant of force distributions in elastic spring networks.
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    Recombination dynamics in (In,Ga)N/GaN heterostructures: Influence of localization and crystal polarity
    (Berlin : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2018) Feix, Felix
    (In,Ga)N/GaN-Leuchtdioden wurden vor mehr als 10 Jahren kommerzialisiert, dennoch ist das Verständnis über den Einfluss von Lokalisierung auf die Rekombinationsdynamik in den (In,Ga)N/GaN Quantengräben (QG) unvollständig. In dieser Arbeit nutzen wir die temperaturabhängige stationäre und zeitaufgelöste Spektroskopie der Photolumineszenz (PL), um diesen Einfluss in einer typischen Ga-polaren, planaren (In,Ga)N/GaN-QG-Struktur zu untersuchen. Zusätzlich dehnen wir unsere Studie auf N-polare, axiale (In,Ga)N/GaN Quantumscheiben, nichtpolare Kern/Mantel GaN/(In,Ga)N µ-Drähte und Ga-polare, submonolage InN/GaN Übergitter aus. Während wir einen einfach exponentiellen Abfall der PL-Intensität in den nichtpolaren QG beobachten (Hinweise auf die Rekombination von Exzitonen), folgen die PL-Transienten in polaren QG asymptotisch einem Potenzgesetz. Dieses Potenzgesetz weist auf eine Rekombination zwischen individuell lokalisierten, räumlich getrennten Elektronen und Löchern hin. Für einen solchen Zerfall kann keine eindeutige PL-Lebensdauer definiert werden, was die Schätzung der internen Quanteneffizienz und die Bestimmung einer Diffusionslänge erschwert. Um nützliche Rekombinationsparameter und Diffusivitäten für die polaren QG zu extrahieren, analysieren wir die PL-Transienten mit positionsabhängigen Diffusionsreaktionsgleichungen, die durch einen Monte-Carlo-Algorithmus effizient gelöst werden. Aus diesen Simulationen ergibt sich, dass das asymptotische Potenzgesetz auch bei effizienter nichtstrahlender Rekombination (z. B. in den Nanodrähten) erhalten bleibt. Zudem stellen wir fest, dass sich die InN/GaN Übergitter elektronisch wie konventionelle (In,Ga)N/GaN QG verhalten, aber mit starkem, thermisch aktiviertem nichtstrahlenden Kanal. Des Weiteren zeigen wir, dass das Verhältnis von Lokalisierungs- und Exzitonenbindungsenergie bestimmt, dass die Rekombination entweder durch das Tunneln von Elektronen und Löchern oder durch den Zerfall von Exzitonen dominiert wird.
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    Publisher Correction: Multiple fermion scattering in the weakly coupled spin-chain compound YbAlO3 (Nature Communications, (2021), 12, 1, (3599), 10.1038/s41467-021-23585-z)
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Nikitin, S.E.; Nishimoto, S.; Fan, Y.; Wu, J.; Wu, L.S.; Sukhanov, A.S.; Brando, M.; Pavlovskii, N.S.; Xu, J.; Vasylechko, L.; Yu, R.; Podlesnyak, A.
    [No abstract available]
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    Field-induced interactions in magneto-active elastomers - a comparison of experiments and simulations
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Metsch, P.; Schmidt, H.; Sindersberger, D.; Kalina, K.A.; Brummund, J.; Auernhammer, G.K.; Monkman, G.J.; Kästner, M.
    In this contribution, field-induced interactions of magnetizable particles embedded into a soft elastomer matrix are analyzed with regard to the resulting mechanical deformations. By comparing experiments for two-, three- and four-particle systems with the results of finite element simulations, a fully coupled continuum model for magneto-active elastomers is validated with the help of real data for the first time. The model under consideration permits the investigation of magneto-active elastomers with arbitrary particle distances, shapes and volume fractions as well as magnetic and mechanical properties of the individual constituents. It thus represents a basis for future studies on more complex, realistic systems. Our results show a very good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations—the deformation behavior of all systems is captured by the model qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Within a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the initial particle positions on the systems' response is examined. Furthermore, a comparison of the full three-dimensional model with the often used, simplified two-dimensional approach shows the typical overestimation of resulting interactions in magneto-active elastomers.
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    Phonon driven charge dynamics in polycrystalline acetylsalicylic acid mapped by ultrafast x-ray diffraction
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publishing LLC, 2019) Hauf, Christoph; Hernandez Salvador, Antonio-Andres; Holtz, Marcel; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas
    The coupled lattice and charge dynamics induced by phonon excitation in polycrystalline acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) are mapped by femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction. The hybrid-mode character of the 0.9 ± 0.1 THz methyl rotation in the aspirin molecules is evident from collective charge relocations over distances of some 100 pm, much larger than the sub-picometer nuclear displacements. Oscillatory charge relocations around the methyl group generate a torque on the latter, thus coupling electronic and nuclear motions.