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Now showing 1 - 10 of 603
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    Phenological model intercomparison for estimating grapevine budbreak date (Vitis vinifera L.) in Europe
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Leolini, Luisa; Costafreda-Aumedes, Sergi; Santos, João A.; Menz, Christoph; Fraga, Helder; Molitor, Daniel; Merante, Paolo; Junk, Jürgen; Kartschall, Thomas; Destrac-Irvine, Agnès; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Eiras-Dias, José; Silvestre, José; Dibari, Camilla; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco
    Budbreak date in grapevine is strictly dependent on temperature, and the correct simulation of its occurrence is of great interest since it may have major consequences on the final yield and quality. In this study, we evaluated the reliability for budbreak simulation of two modeling approaches, the chilling-forcing (CF), which describes the entire dormancy period (endo-and eco-dormancy) and the forcing approach (F), which only describes the eco-dormancy. For this, we selected six phenological models that apply CF and F in dierent ways, which were tested on budbreak simulation of eight grapevine varieties cultivated at dierent latitudes in Europe. Although none of the compared models showed a clear supremacy over the others, models based on CF showed a generally higher estimation accuracy than F where fixed starting dates were adopted. In the latter models, the accurate simulation of budbreak was dependent on the selection of the starting date for forcing accumulation that changes according to the latitude, whereas CF models were independent. Indeed, distinct thermal requirements were found for the grapevine varieties cultivated in Northern and Southern Europe. This implies the need to improve modeling of the dormancy period to avoid under-or over-estimations of budbreak date under dierent environmental conditions. © 2020 by the authors.
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    Plasma‐treated flammulina velutipes‐derived extract showed anticancer potential in human breast cancer cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Mitra, Sarmistha; Bhartiya, Pradeep; Kaushik, Neha; Nguyen, Linh Nhat; Wahab, Rizwan; Bekeschus, Sander; Choi, Eun Ha; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar
    Natural products with medicinal properties are among alternative therapies of interest due to their high body tolerance. We aimed to determine whether nonthermal gas plasma could enhance the medicinal value of Flammulina velutipes mushrooms. Generated gas plasma was characterized by its emission spectrum in ambient air, pH, temperature, and H2O2 and NOx concentrations after exposure for various periods. Phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extracts were measured using antioxidant assays and Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet‐visible spectroscopy. We analyzed the effects of the plasma‐treated mushroom‐derived extracts against breast carcinoma using the MCF7 and MDA‐MB231 cell lines. The extracts significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells without inducing toxicity in normal MCF10A cells, and induced apoptosis via oxidative stress, evidenced by DNA damage (γ‐ H2AX foci formation), and increased the population of MCF7 breast cancer cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The extracts also induced mitochondrion‐mediated apoptosis of MCF7 cells through cytochrome c release and caspase cleavage activity. The plasma improved the biological activity of mushrooms by increasing their phenolic compounds that prevented the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Activation of murine immune cells upon co-culture with plasma-treated B16F10 melanoma cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Rödder, Katrin; Moritz, Juliane; Miller, Vandana; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Gandhirajan, Rajesh; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent advances in melanoma therapy increased median survival in patients. However, death rates are still high, motivating the need of novel avenues in melanoma treatment. Cold physical plasma expels a cocktail of reactive species that have been suggested for cancer treatment. High species concentrations can be used to exploit apoptotic redox signaling pathways in tumor cells. Moreover, an immune-stimulatory role of plasma treatment, as well as plasma-killed tumor cells, was recently proposed, but studies using primary immune cells are scarce. To this end, we investigated the role of plasma-treated murine B16F10 melanoma cells in modulating murine immune cells' activation and marker profile. Melanoma cells exposed to plasma showed reduced metabolic and migratory activity, and an increased release of danger signals (ATP, CXCL1). This led to an altered cytokine profile with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CCL4 being significantly increased in plasma-treated mono- and co-cultures with immune cells. In T cells, plasma-treated melanoma cells induced extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and increased CD28 expression, suggesting their activation. In monocytes, CD115 expression was elevated as a marker for activation. In summary, here we provide proof of concept that plasma-killed tumor cells are recognized immunologically, and that plasma exerts stimulating effects on immune cells alone. © 2019 by the authors.
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    Electrolytic Surface Treatment for Improved Adhesion between Carbon Fibre and Polycarbonate
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018) Kamps, Jan Henk; Henderson, Luke C.; Scheffler, Christina; Van der Heijden, Ruud; Simon, Frank; Bonizzi, Teena; Verghese, Nikhil
    To achieve good mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polycarbonate composites, the fibre-matrix adhesion must be dialled to an optimum level. The electrolytic surface treatment of carbon fibres during their production is one of the possible means of adapting the surface characteristics of the fibres. The production of a range of tailored fibres with varying surface treatments (adjusting the current, potential, and conductivity) was followed by contact angle, inverse gas chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, which revealed a significant increase in polarity and hydroxyl, carboxyl, and nitrile groups on the fibre surface. Accordingly, an increase in the fibre-matrix interaction indicated by a higher interfacial shear strength was observed with the single fibre pull-out force-displacement curves. The statistical analysis identified the correlation between the process settings, fibre surface characteristics, and the performance of the fibres during single fibre pull-out testing.
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    Effect of Alloying Elements in Melt Spun Mg-alloys for Hydrogen Storage
    (São Carlos : SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, 2016) Rozenberg, Silvia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Lang, Julien; Audebert, Fernando; Botta, Pablo; Stoica, Mihai; Huot, Jacques; Eckert, Jürgen
    In this paper we report the effect of alloying elements on hydrogen storage properties of melt-spun Mg-based alloys. The base alloys Mg90Si10, Mg90Cu10, Mg65Cu35 (at%) were studied. We also investigated the effect of rare earths (using MM: mischmetal) and Al in Mg65Cu25Al10, Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys. All the melt-spun alloys without MM show a crystalline structure, and the Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys showed an amorphous and partially amorphous structure respectively. At 350˚C all the alloys had a crystalline structure during the hydrogen absorption-desorption tests. It was observed that Si and Cu in the binaries alloys hindered completely the activation of the hydrogen absorption. The partial substitution of Cu by MM or Al allowed activation. The combined substitution of Cu by MM and Al showed the best results with the fastest absorption and desorption kinetics, which suggests that this combination can be used for new Mg-alloys to improve hydrogen storage properties.
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    Magneto-Mechanical Coupling in Magneto-Active Elastomers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Metsch, Philipp; Romeis, Dirk; Kalina, Karl A.; Raßloff, Alexander; Saphiannikova, Marina; Kästner, Markus
    In the present work, the magneto-mechanical coupling in magneto-active elastomers is investigated from two different modeling perspectives: a micro-continuum and a particle–interaction approach. Since both strategies differ significantly in their basic assumptions and the resolution of the problem under investigation, they are introduced in a concise manner and their capabilities are illustrated by means of representative examples. To motivate the application of these strategies within a hybrid multiscale framework for magneto-active elastomers, their interchangeability is then examined in a systematic comparison of the model predictions with regard to the magneto-deformation of chain-like helical structures in an elastomer surrounding. The presented results show a remarkable agreement of both modeling approaches and help to provide an improved understanding of the interactions in magneto-active elastomers with chain-like microstructures.
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    Author Correction: A combination of electrochemistry and mass spectrometry to monitor the interaction of reactive species with supported lipid bilayers (Scientific Reports, (2020), 10, 1, (18683), 10.1038/s41598-020-75514-7)
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Ravandeh, M.; Kahlert, H.; Jablonowski, H.; Lackmann, J.-W.; Striesow, J.; Agmo Hernández, V.; Wende, K.
    Correction to: Scientific Reports, published online 29 October 2020
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    Self‐Patterning of Multifunctional Heusler Membranes by Dewetting
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Lünser, Klara; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, Sebastian
    Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys are an emerging class of materials which enable actuation by (magnetic) shape memory effects, magnetocaloric cooling, and thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Multifunctional materials have a particular advantage for miniaturization since their functionality is already built within the material. However, often complex microtechnological processing is required to bring these materials into shape. Here, self-organized formation of single crystalline membranes having arrays of rectangular holes with high aspect ratio is demonstrated. Dewetting avoids the need for complicated processing and allows to prepare freestanding Ni–Mn–Ga–Co membranes. These membranes are martensitic and magnetic, and their functional properties are not disturbed by self-patterning. Feature sizes of these membranes can be tailored by film thickness and heat treatment, and the tendencies can be explained with dewetting. As an outlook, the advantages of these multifunctional membranes for magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic microsystems are sketched. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Plasma Medicine Technologies
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Bekeschus, Sander; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Lin, Abraham; Choi, Eun Ha
    This Special Issue, entitled “Plasma Medicine Technologies”, covers the latest remarkable developments in the field of plasma bioscience and medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine, towards the development of therapeutic strategies. A study on plasma medicine has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in medical and dental sciences. An important aspect of this issue is the presentation of research underlying new therapeutic methods that are useful in medicine, dentistry, sterilization, and, in the current scenario, that challenge perspectives in biomedical sciences. This issue is focused on basic research on the characterization of the bioplasma sources applicable to living cells, especially to the human body, and fundamental research on the mutual interactions between bioplasma and organic–inorganic liquids, and bio or nanomaterials.
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    Ultrasmall SnO₂ nanocrystals: hot-bubbling synthesis, encapsulation in carbon layers and applications in high capacity Li-ion storage
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2014) Ding, Liping; He, Shulian; Miao, Shiding; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Leubner, Susanne; Yan, Chenglin; Hickey, Stephen G.; Eychmüller, Alexander; Xu, Jinzhang; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Ultrasmall SnO2 nanocrystals as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been synthesized by bubbling an oxidizing gas into hot surfactant solutions containing Sn-oleate complexes. Annealing of the particles in N2 carbonifies the densely packed surface capping ligands resulting in carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2/C). Carbon encapsulation can effectively buffer the volume changes during the lithiation/delithiation process. The assembled SnO2/C thus deliver extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 908 mA·h·g−1 at 0.5 C as well as excellent cycling performance in the LIBs. This method demonstrates the great potential of SnO2/C nanoparticles for the design of high power LIBs.