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Now showing 1 - 10 of 124
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    When optimization for governing human-environment tipping elements is neither sustainable nor safe
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Barfuss, W.; Donges, J.F.; Lade, S.J.; Kurths, J.
    Optimizing economic welfare in environmental governance has been criticized for delivering short-term gains at the expense of long-term environmental degradation. Different from economic optimization, the concepts of sustainability and the more recent safe operating space have been used to derive policies in environmental governance. However, a formal comparison between these three policy paradigms is still missing, leaving policy makers uncertain which paradigm to apply. Here, we develop a better understanding of their interrelationships, using a stylized model of human-environment tipping elements. We find that no paradigm guarantees fulfilling requirements imposed by another paradigm and derive simple heuristics for the conditions under which these trade-offs occur. We show that the absence of such a master paradigm is of special relevance for governing real-world tipping systems such as climate, fisheries, and farming, which may reside in a parameter regime where economic optimization is neither sustainable nor safe.
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    Effects of new beta-type Ti-40Nb implant materials, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine on human mesenchymal stem cells of osteoporotic and non osteoporotic donors
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2018) Kauschke, V.; Gebert, A.; Calin, M.; Eckert, J.; Scheich, S.; Heiss, C.; Lips, K.S.
    Introduction Treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still challenging and an urgent need exists for new materials, better adapted to osteoporotic bone by adjusted Young’s modulus, appropriate surface modification and pharmaceuticals. Materials and methods Titanium-40-niobium alloys, mechanically ground or additionally etched and titanium-6-alu-minium-4-vanadium were analyzed in combination with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine to determine their effects on human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro over 21 days using lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase assays, live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Cell number of human mesenchymal stem cells of osteoporotic donors was increased after 14 d in presence of ground titanium-40-niobium or titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium, together with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell number of human mesenchymal stem cells of non osteoporotic donors increased after 21 d in presence of titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium without pharmaceuticals. No significant increase was measured for ground or etched titanium-40-niobium after 21 d. Osteoblast differentiation of osteoporotic donors was significantly higher than in non osteoporotic donors after 21 d in presence of etched, ground titanium-40-niobium or titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium accompanied by all pharmaceuticals tested. In presence of all alloys tested brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine increased differentiation of cells of osteoporotic donors and accelerated it in non osteoporotic donors. Conclusion We conclude that ground titanium-40-niobium and brain-derived neurotrophic factor might be most suitable for subsequent in vivo testing.
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    Complement activation by carbon nanotubes and its influence on the phagocytosis and cytokine response by macrophages
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2014) Pondman, K.M.; Sobik, M.; Nayak, A.; Tsolaki, A.G.; Jäkel, A.; Flahaut, E.; Hampel, S.; ten Haken, B.; Sim, R.B.; Kishore, U.
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have promised a range of applications in biomedicine. Although influenced by the dispersants used, CNTs are recognized by the innate immune system, predominantly by the classical pathway of the complement system. Here, we confirm that complement activation by the CNT used continues up to C3 and C5, indicating that the entire complement system is activated including the formation of membrane-attack complexes. Using recombinant forms of the globular regions of human C1q (gC1q) as inhibitors of CNT-mediated classical pathway activation, we show that C1q, the first recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway, binds CNTs via the gC1q domain. Complement opsonisation of CNTs significantly enhances their uptake by U937 cells, with concomitant downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in both U937 cells and human monocytes. We propose that CNT-mediated complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response. From the Clinical Editor: This study highlights the importance of the complement system in response to carbon nanontube administration, suggesting that the ensuing complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response.
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    Rolled-up functionalized nanomembranes as three-dimensional cavities for single cell studies
    (Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 2014) Xi, W.; Schmidt, C.K.; Sanchez, S.; Gracias, D.H.; Carazo-Salas, R.E.; Jackson, S.P.; Schmidt, O.G.
    We use micropatterning and strain engineering to encapsulate single living mammalian cells into transparent tubular architectures consisting of three-dimensional (3D) rolled-up nanomembranes. By using optical microscopy, we demonstrate that these structures are suitable for the scrutiny of cellular dynamics within confined 3D-microenvironments. We show that spatial confinement of mitotic mammalian cells inside tubular architectures can perturb metaphase plate formation, delay mitotic progression, and cause chromosomal instability in both a transformed and nontransformed human cell line. These findings could provide important clues into how spatial constraints dictate cellular behavior and function.
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    Reply to Bhowmik et al.: Democratic climate action and studying extreme climate risks are not in tension
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2022) Kemp, Luke; Xu, Chi; Depledge, Joanna; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gibbins, Goodwin; Kohler, Timothy A.; Rockström, Johan; Scheffer, Marten; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Steffen, Will; Lenton, Timothy M.
    [no abstract available]
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    Critical appraisal concerning “Wearable cardioverter defibrillators for the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest: A health technology assessment and patient focus group study”
    (Macclesfield [u.a.] : Dove Medical Press, 2018) Sperzel, Johannes; Staudacher, Ingo; Goeing, Olaf; Stockburger, Martin; Meyer, Thorsten; Oliveira Gonçalves, Ana Sofia; Sydow, Hanna; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Amelung, Volker Eric
    [no abstract available]
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    Non-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, Fatah
    Effective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
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    Switchable magnetic bulk photovoltaic effect in the two-dimensional magnet CrI3
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Zhang, Y.; Holder, T.; Ishizuka, H.; de Juan, F.; Nagaosa, N.; Felser, C.; Yan, B.
    The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) rectifies light into the dc current in a single-phase material and attracts the interest to design high-efficiency solar cells beyond the pn junction paradigm. Because it is a hot electron effect, the BPVE surpasses the thermodynamic Shockley–Queisser limit to generate above-band-gap photovoltage. While the guiding principle for BPVE materials is to break the crystal centrosymmetry, here we propose a magnetic photogalvanic effect (MPGE) that introduces the magnetism as a key ingredient and induces a giant BPVE. The MPGE emerges from the magnetism-induced asymmetry of the carrier velocity in the band structure. We demonstrate the MPGE in a layered magnetic insulator CrI3, with much larger photoconductivity than any previously reported results. The photocurrent can be reversed and switched by controllable magnetic transitions. Our work paves a pathway to search for magnetic photovoltaic materials and to design switchable devices combining magnetic, electronic, and optical functionalities.
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    Shared MRSA Strains among Nepalese Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), their Environment and Hospitalized Patients
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2019) Roberts, Marilyn C.; Joshi, Prabhu Raj; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Müller, Elke; Gawlik, Darius; Paudel, Saroj; Acharya, Mahesh; Bhattarai, Sankalpa; Pokharel, Sujana; Tuladhar, Reshma; Chalise, Mukesh K.; Kyes, Randall C.
    This study looked at 227 saliva samples from Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 218 samples from the surrounding environments. From these samples, MRSA isolates were collected from Rhesus saliva samples (n = 13) and environmental samples (n = 19) near temple areas in Kathmandu, Nepal. For comparison, selected MRSA isolates (n = 5) were obtained from patients with wound infections from a Kathmandu hospital. All isolates were characterized using Abbott StaphyType® DNA microarrays. Eighteen isolates (62%) from monkeys (n = 4; 31%) and environmental samples (n = 14; 74%), were CC22-MRSA-IV. Most (n = 16) of them carried both, the PVL locus and toxic shock toxin gene (tst1), an unusual combination which is the same as in previously characterized strain from Nepalese macaques and pigs. The five human isolates also belonged to that strain type. Eight monkey MRSA isolates were CC361-MRSA-IV. One MRSA from a monkey and one from an environmental sample, were CC88-MRSA-V. Other environmental MRSA included one each, CC121-MRSA-VT, and CC772 -MRSA-V. Two were CC779-MRSA-VT, potentially a novel clone. All MRSA carried the blaZ gene. The aacA–aphD, dfrA, and erm (C) genes were very common in isolates from all sources. One macaque MRSA carried the resistance genes aphA3 and sat, neither previously identified in primate MRSA isolates. This current study suggests that humans could be a potential source of the MRSA in the macaques/environment and transmission may be linked to humans feeding the primates and/or living in close proximity to each other.This study looked at 227 saliva samples from Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 218 samples from the surrounding environments. From these samples, MRSA isolates were collected from Rhesus saliva samples (n = 13) and environmental samples (n = 19) near temple areas in Kathmandu, Nepal. For comparison, selected MRSA isolates (n = 5) were obtained from patients with wound infections from a Kathmandu hospital. All isolates were characterized using Abbott StaphyType® DNA microarrays. Eighteen isolates (62%) from monkeys (n = 4; 31%) and environmental samples (n = 14; 74%), were CC22-MRSA-IV. Most (n = 16) of them carried both, the PVL locus and toxic shock toxin gene (tst1), an unusual combination which is the same as in previously characterized strain from Nepalese macaques and pigs. The five human isolates also belonged to that strain type. Eight monkey MRSA isolates were CC361-MRSA-IV. One MRSA from a monkey and one from an environmental sample, were CC88-MRSA-V. Other environmental MRSA included one each, CC121-MRSA-VT, and CC772 -MRSA-V. Two were CC779-MRSA-VT, potentially a novel clone. All MRSA carried the blaZ gene. The aacA–aphD, dfrA, and erm (C) genes were very common in isolates from all sources. One macaque MRSA carried the resistance genes aphA3 and sat, neither previously identified in primate MRSA isolates. This current study suggests that humans could be a potential source of the MRSA in the macaques/environment and transmission may be linked to humans feeding the primates and/or living in close proximity to each other.
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    PDA Indolylmaleimides Induce Anti-Tumor Effects in Prostate Carcinoma Cell Lines Through Mitotic Death
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Research Foundation, 2021) Schille, Jan Torben; Nolte, Ingo; Beck, Julia; Jilani, Daria; Roolf, Catrin; Pews-Davtyan, Anahit; Rolfs, Arndt; Henze, Larissa; Beller, Matthias; Brenig, Bertram; Junghanss, Christian; Schütz, Ekkehard; Murua Escobar, Hugo
    Castrate resistant prostate cancer in men shares several characteristics with canine prostate cancer (PCa). Due to current insufficient therapies, evaluating novel therapeutic agents for late-stage PCa is of considerable interest for both species. PDA indolylmaleimides showed anticancer effects in several neoplastic cell lines. Herein, a comparative characterization of PDA-66 and PDA-377 mediated effects was performed in human and canine PCa cell lines, which is also the first detailed characterization of these agents on cells derived from solid tumors in general. While PDA-377 showed only weak growth inhibition on human PCa cell lines, PDA-66 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in human and canine cell lines with concentrations in the low micromolar range. Morphological characterization and whole transcriptome sequencing revealed that PDA-66 induces mitotic death through its microtubule-depolymerizing ability. PDA-66 appears to be a worthwhile anti-mitotic agent for further evaluation. The similarities in cellular and molecular response observed in the cell lines of both origins form a solid basis for the use of canine PCa in vivo models to gain valuable interchangeable data to the advantage of both species.