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    Influence of diluted acid mixtures on selective etching of MHz- and kHz-fs-laser inscribed structures in YAG
    (Washington, DC : OSA, 2021) Hasse, Kore; Kip, Detlef; Kränkel, Christian
    We show that the inscription velocity of fs-laser written structures in YAG crystals can be significantly improved by the use of MHz repetition rates for the writing process. Using a 10 MHz inscription laser, record high writing velocities up to 100 mm/s are achieved. Also, the selective etching process is accelerated using a diluted mixture of 22% H3PO4 and 24% H2SO4. The diluted mixture enables selective etching of up to 9.6 mm long, 1 µm wide and 18 µm high microchannels in 23 days. The etching parameter D of 11.2 µm2/s is a factor of 3 higher than previously reported and the selectivity is even increased by an order of magnitude.
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    Research Update: Van-der-Waals epitaxy of layered chalcogenide Sb2Te3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publ., 2017) Hilmi, Isom; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Schumacher, Philipp; Rauschenbach, Bernd
    An attempt to deposit a high quality epitaxial thin film of a two-dimensionally bonded (layered) chalcogenide material with van-der-Waals (vdW) epitaxy is of strong interest for non-volatile memory application. In this paper, the epitaxial growth of an exemplary layered chalcogenide material, i.e., stoichiometric Sb2Te3 thin films, is reported. The films were produced on unreconstructed highly lattice-mismatched Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were grown by vdW epitaxy in a two-dimensional mode. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the films possess a trigonal Sb2Te3 structure. The single atomic Sb/Te termination layer on the Si surface was formed initializing the thin film growth. This work demonstrates a straightforward method to deposit vdW-epitaxial layered chalcogenides and, at the same time, opens up the feasibility to fabricate chalcogenide vdW heterostructures by PLD.
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    Schlussbericht zum BMBF-Vorhaben: Compact optohybrids (CoOp), Teilvorhaben: Ionenätzverfahren für die Strukturierung
    (Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2006) Schindler, Axel
    [no abstract available]
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    Polymeric monolithic materials: Syntheses, properties, functionalization and applications
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2007) Buchmeiser, M.R.
    The synthetic particularities for the synthesis of polymer-based monolithic materials are summarized. In this context, monoliths prepared via thermal-, UV- or electron-beam triggered free radical polymerization, controlled TEMPO-mediated radical polymerization, polyaddition, polycondensation as well as living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) will be covered. Particular attention is devoted to the aspects of controlling pore sizes, pore volumes and pore size distributions as well as functionalization of these supports. Finally, selected, recent applications in separation science, (bio-) catalysis and chip technology will be summarized. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    VPN Seat - drahtloses virtuelles Netzwerk für die Kommunikation durch den Passagier : Abschlußbericht für Verbundprojekt VPN Seat
    (Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2010) Langendörfer, Peter; Maye, Oliver
    [no abstract available]
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    Nanoscopic tip sensors fabricated by gas phase etching of optical glass fibers
    (Heidelberg : Springer, 2012) Bierlich, J.; Kobelke, J.; Brand, D.; Kirsch, K.; Dellith, J.; Bartelt, H.
    Silica-based fiber tips are used in a variety of spectroscopic, micro- or nano-scopic optical sensor applications and photonic micro-devices. The miniaturization of optical sensor systems and the technical implementation using optical fibers can provide new sensor designs with improved properties and functionality for new applications. The selective-etching of specifically doped silica fibers is a promising method in order to form complex photonic micro structures at the end or within fibers such as tips and cavities in various shapes useful for the all-fiber sensor and imaging applications. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of geometrically predefined, nanoscaled fiber tips by taking advantage of the dopant concentration profiles of highly doped step-index fibers. For this purpose, a gas phase etching process using hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor was applied. The shaping of the fiber tips was based on very different etching rates as a result of the doping characteristics of specific optical fibers. Technological studies on the influence of the etching gas atmosphere on the temporal tip shaping and the final geometry were performed using undoped and doped silica fibers. The influence of the doping characteristics was investigated in phosphorus-, germanium-, fluorine- and boron-doped glass fibers. Narrow exposed as well as protected internal fiber tips in various shapes and tip radiuses down to less than 15 nm were achieved and characterized geometrically and topologically. For investigations into surface plasmon resonance effects, the fiber tips were coated with nanometer-sized silver layers by means of vapour deposition and finally subjected to an annealing treatment.
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    Promoting abnormal grain growth in Fe-based shape memory alloys through compositional adjustments
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Vollmer, M.; Arold, T.; Kriegel, M.J.; Klemm, V.; Degener, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Niendorf, T.
    Iron-based shape memory alloys are promising candidates for large-scale structural applications due to their cost efficiency and the possibility of using conventional processing routes from the steel industry. However, recently developed alloy systems like Fe–Mn–Al–Ni suffer from low recoverability if the grains do not completely cover the sample cross-section. To overcome this issue, here we show that small amounts of titanium added to Fe–Mn–Al–Ni significantly enhance abnormal grain growth due to a considerable refinement of the subgrain sizes, whereas small amounts of chromium lead to a strong inhibition of abnormal grain growth. By tailoring and promoting abnormal grain growth it is possible to obtain very large single crystalline bars. We expect that the findings of the present study regarding the elementary mechanisms of abnormal grain growth and the role of chemical composition can be applied to tailor other alloy systems with similar microstructural features.
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    Applications of Electronic Nose, Electronic Eye and Electronic Tongue in Quality, Safety and Shelf Life of Meat and Meat Products: A Review
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Munekata, Paulo E. S.; Finardi, Sarah; de Souza, Carolina Krebs; Meinert, Caroline; Pateiro, Mirian; Hoffmann, Tuany Gabriela; Domínguez, Rubén; Bertoli, Sávio Leandro; Kumar, Manoj; Lorenzo, José M.
    The quality and shelf life of meat and meat products are key factors that are usually evaluated by complex and laborious protocols and intricate sensory methods. Devices with attractive characteristics (fast reading, portability, and relatively low operational costs) that facilitate the measurement of meat and meat products characteristics are of great value. This review aims to provide an overview of the fundamentals of electronic nose (E-nose), eye (E-eye), and tongue (E-tongue), data preprocessing, chemometrics, the application in the evaluation of quality and shelf life of meat and meat products, and advantages and disadvantages related to these electronic systems. E-nose is the most versatile technology among all three electronic systems and comprises applications to distinguish the application of different preservation methods (chilling vs. frozen, for instance), processing conditions (especially temperature and time), detect adulteration (meat from different species), and the monitoring of shelf life. Emerging applications include the detection of pathogenic microorganisms using E-nose. E-tongue is another relevant technology to determine adulteration, processing conditions, and to monitor shelf life. Finally, E-eye has been providing accurate measuring of color evaluation and grade marbling levels in fresh meat. However, advances are necessary to obtain information that are more related to industrial conditions. Advances to include industrial scenarios (cut sorting in continuous processing, for instance) are of great value.
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    Support for a long lifetime and short end-to-end delays with TDMA protocols in sensor networks
    (London : Hindawi, 2012) Brzozowski, Marcin; Salomon, Hendrik; Langendoerfer, Peter
    This work addresses a tough challenge of achieving two opposing goals: ensuring long lifetimes and supporting short end-to-end delays in sensor networks. Obviously, sensor nodes must wake up often to support short delays in multi-hop networks. As event occurs seldom in common applications, most wake-up are useless: nodes waste energy due to idle listening. We introduce a set of solutions, referred to as LETED (limiting end-to-end delays), which shorten the wake-up periods, reduce idle listening, and save energy. We exploit hardware features of available transceivers that allow early detection of idle wake-up periods. This feature is introduced on top of our approach to reduce idle listening stemming from clock drift owing to the estimation of run-time drift. To evaluate LETED and other MAC protocols that support short end-to-end delays we present an analytical model, which considers almost 30 hardware and software parameters. Our evaluation revealed that LETED reduces idle listening by 15x and more against similar solutions. Also, LETED outperforms other protocols and provides significant longer lifetimes. For example, nodes with LETED work 8x longer than those with a common TDMA and 2x-3x longer than with protocols based on preamble sampling, like B-MAC.