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Now showing 1 - 10 of 111
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    Liver Dysfunction and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signalling in Early Sepsis: Experimental Studies in Rodent Models of Peritonitis
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science, 2012) Recknagel, P.; Gonnert, F.A.; Westermann, M.; Lambeck, S.; Lupp, A.; Rudiger, A.; Dyson, A.; Carré, J.E.; Kortgen, A.; Krafft, C.; Popp, J.; Sponholz, C.; Fuhrmann, V.; Hilger, I.; Claus, R.A.; Riedemann, N.C.; Wetzker, R.; Singer, M.; Trauner, M.; Bauer, M.
    Background: Hepatic dysfunction and jaundice are traditionally viewed as late features of sepsis and portend poor outcomes. We hypothesized that changes in liver function occur early in the onset of sepsis, yet pass undetected by standard laboratory tests. Methods and Findings: In a long-term rat model of faecal peritonitis, biotransformation and hepatobiliary transport were impaired, depending on subsequent disease severity, as early as 6 h after peritoneal contamination. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling was simultaneously induced at this time point. At 15 h there was hepatocellular accumulation of bilirubin, bile acids, and xenobiotics, with disturbed bile acid conjugation and drug metabolism. Cholestasis was preceded by disruption of the bile acid and organic anion transport machinery at the canalicular pole. Inhibitors of PI3K partially prevented cytokine-induced loss of villi in cultured HepG2 cells. Notably, mice lacking the PI3Kγ gene were protected against cholestasis and impaired bile acid conjugation. This was partially confirmed by an increase in plasma bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA] and taurodeoxycholic acid [TDCA]) observed in 48 patients on the day severe sepsis was diagnosed; unlike bilirubin (area under the receiver-operating curve: 0.59), these bile acids predicted 28-d mortality with high sensitivity and specificity (area under the receiver-operating curve: CDCA: 0.77; TDCA: 0.72; CDCA+TDCA: 0.87). Conclusions: Liver dysfunction is an early and commonplace event in the rat model of sepsis studied here; PI3K signalling seems to play a crucial role. All aspects of hepatic biotransformation are affected, with severity relating to subsequent prognosis. Detected changes significantly precede conventional markers and are reflected by early alterations in plasma bile acids. These observations carry important implications for the diagnosis of liver dysfunction and pharmacotherapy in the critically ill. Further clinical work is necessary to extend these concepts into clinical practice. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
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    Biofunctionalized self-propelled micromotors as an alternative on-chip concentrating system
    (Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; Meyer, Anne K.; Helbig, Linda; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Sample pre-concentration is crucial to achieve high sensitivity and low detection limits in lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we present a system in which self-propelled catalytic micromotors are biofunctionalized and trapped acting as an alternative concentrating mechanism. This system requires no external energy source, which facilitates integration and miniaturization.
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    In vitro model of metastasis to bone marrow mediates prostate cancer castration resistant growth through paracrine and extracellular matrix factors
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science, 2012) Lescarbeau, R.M.; Seib, F.P.; Prewitz, M.; Werner, C.; Kaplan, D.L.
    The spread of prostate cancer cells to the bone marrow microenvironment and castration resistant growth are key steps in disease progression and significant sources of morbidity. However, the biological significance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone marrow derived extracellular matrix (BM-ECM) in this process is not fully understood. We therefore established an in vitro engineered bone marrow tissue model that incorporates hMSCs and BM-ECM to facilitate mechanistic studies of prostate cancer cell survival in androgen-depleted media in response to paracrine factors and BM-ECM. hMSC-derived paracrine factors increased LNCaP cell survival, which was in part attributed to IGFR and IL6 signaling. In addition, BM-ECM increased LNCaP and MDA-PCa-2b cell survival in androgen-depleted conditions, and induced chemoresistance and morphological changes in LNCaPs. To determine the effect of BM-ECM on cell signaling, the phosphorylation status of 46 kinases was examined. Increases in the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway-related proteins as well as sustained Akt phosphorylation were observed in BM-ECM cultures when compared to cultures grown on plasma-treated polystyrene. Blocking MEK1/2 or the PI3K pathway led to a significant reduction in LNCaP survival when cultured on BM-ECM in androgen-depleted conditions. The clinical relevance of these observations was determined by analyzing Erk phosphorylation in human bone metastatic prostate cancer versus non-metastatic prostate cancer, and increased phosphorylation was seen in the metastatic samples. Here we describe an engineered bone marrow model that mimics many features observed in patients and provides a platform for mechanistic in vitro studies.
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    Vinculin binding angle in podosomes revealed by high resolution microscopy
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science, 2014) Walde, M.; Monypenny, J.; Heintzmann, R.; Jones, G.E.; Cox, S.
    Podosomes are highly dynamic actin-rich adhesive structures formed predominantly by cells of the monocytic lineage, which degrade the extracellular matrix. They consist of a core of F-actin and actin-regulating proteins, surrounded by a ring of adhesion-associated proteins such as vinculin. We have characterised the structure of podosomes in macrophages, particularly the structure of the ring, using three super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques: stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy and localisation microscopy. Rather than being round, as previously assumed, we found the vinculin ring to be created from relatively straight strands of vinculin, resulting in a distinctly polygonal shape. The strands bind preferentially at angles between 116° and 135°. Furthermore, adjacent vinculin strands are observed nucleating at the corners of the podosomes, suggesting a mechanism for podosome growth.
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    Complement activation by carbon nanotubes and its influence on the phagocytosis and cytokine response by macrophages
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2014) Pondman, K.M.; Sobik, M.; Nayak, A.; Tsolaki, A.G.; Jäkel, A.; Flahaut, E.; Hampel, S.; ten Haken, B.; Sim, R.B.; Kishore, U.
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have promised a range of applications in biomedicine. Although influenced by the dispersants used, CNTs are recognized by the innate immune system, predominantly by the classical pathway of the complement system. Here, we confirm that complement activation by the CNT used continues up to C3 and C5, indicating that the entire complement system is activated including the formation of membrane-attack complexes. Using recombinant forms of the globular regions of human C1q (gC1q) as inhibitors of CNT-mediated classical pathway activation, we show that C1q, the first recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway, binds CNTs via the gC1q domain. Complement opsonisation of CNTs significantly enhances their uptake by U937 cells, with concomitant downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in both U937 cells and human monocytes. We propose that CNT-mediated complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response. From the Clinical Editor: This study highlights the importance of the complement system in response to carbon nanontube administration, suggesting that the ensuing complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response.
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    Growth induction and low-oxygen apoptosis inhibition of human CD34 + progenitors in collagen gels
    (New York, NY : Hindawi, 2013) Avitabile, D.; Salchert, K.; Werner, C.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Pesce, M.
    Various reports have indicated low survival of injected progenitors into unfavorable environments such as the ischemic myocardium or lower limb tissues. This represents a major bottleneck in stem-cell-based cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Strategies to enhance survival of these cells in recipient tissues have been therefore sought to improve stem cell survival and ensure long-term engraftment. In the present contribution, we show that embedding human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells into a collagen I-based hydrogel containing cytokines is a suitable strategy to promote stem cell proliferation and protect these cells from anoxia-induced apoptosis.
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    When optimization for governing human-environment tipping elements is neither sustainable nor safe
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Barfuss, W.; Donges, J.F.; Lade, S.J.; Kurths, J.
    Optimizing economic welfare in environmental governance has been criticized for delivering short-term gains at the expense of long-term environmental degradation. Different from economic optimization, the concepts of sustainability and the more recent safe operating space have been used to derive policies in environmental governance. However, a formal comparison between these three policy paradigms is still missing, leaving policy makers uncertain which paradigm to apply. Here, we develop a better understanding of their interrelationships, using a stylized model of human-environment tipping elements. We find that no paradigm guarantees fulfilling requirements imposed by another paradigm and derive simple heuristics for the conditions under which these trade-offs occur. We show that the absence of such a master paradigm is of special relevance for governing real-world tipping systems such as climate, fisheries, and farming, which may reside in a parameter regime where economic optimization is neither sustainable nor safe.
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    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonist activates anti-influenza mechanisms and modulates IFNγ induced antiviral pathways in human neutrophils
    (London : Hindawi, 2013) Feld, Micha; Shpacovitch, Victoria; Ehrhardt, Christina; Fastrich, Michaela; Goerge, Tobias; Ludwig, Stephan; Steinhoff, Martin
    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is expressed by human leukocytes and participates in the development of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrated an ability of PAR2 agonist to enhance IFNγ-induced antiviral responses of human leukocytes. However, the precise cellular antiviral defense mechanisms triggered in leukocytes after stimulation with IFNγ and/or PAR2 agonist remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to identify neutrophil defense mechanisms involved in antiviral resistance. Here we demonstrated that PAR2 agonist enhanced IFNγ-related reduction of influenza A virus (IAV) replication in human neutrophils. PAR2-mediated decrease in IAV replication was associated with reduced NS-1 transcription. Moreover, PAR2-dependent neutrophil activation resulted in enhanced myeloperoxidase degranulation and extracellular myeloperoxidase disrupted IAV. The production of ROS was elevated in response to PAR2 activation. Interestingly, IFNγ did not influence both effects: PAR2 agonist-triggered myeloperoxidase (MPO) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are known to limit IAV infections. In contrast, orthomyxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) protein expression was synergistically elevated through PAR2 agonist and IFNγ in neutrophils. Altogether, these findings emphasize two PAR2-controlled antiviral mechanisms that are independent of or modulated by IFNγ.
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    Genome-wide identification of regulatory elements and reconstruction of gene regulatory networks of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under carbon deprivation
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2013) Winck, F.V.; Arvidsson, S.; Riaño-Pachón, D.M.; Hempe, S.; Koseska, A.; Nikoloski, Z.; Gomez, D.A.U.; Rupprecht, J.; Mueller-Roeber, B.
    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a long-established model organism for studies on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism-related physiology. Under conditions of air-level carbon dioxide concentration [CO 2], a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) is induced to facilitate cellular carbon uptake. CCM increases the availability of carbon dioxide at the site of cellular carbon fixation. To improve our understanding of the transcriptional control of the CCM, we employed FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements, followed by deep sequencing) to determine nucleosome-depleted chromatin regions of algal cells subjected to carbon deprivation. Our FAIRE data recapitulated the positions of known regulatory elements in the promoter of the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase (Cah1) gene, which is upregulated during CCM induction, and revealed new candidate regulatory elements at a genome-wide scale. In addition, time series expression patterns of 130 transcription factor (TF) and transcription regulator (TR) genes were obtained for cells cultured under photoautotrophic condition and subjected to a shift from high to low [CO2]. Groups of co-expressed genes were identified and a putative directed gene-regulatory network underlying the CCM was reconstructed from the gene expression data using the recently developed IOTA (inner composition alignment) method. Among the candidate regulatory genes, two members of the MYB-related TF family, Lcr1 (Low-CO2 response regulator 1) and Lcr2 (Low-CO2 response regulator 2 ), may play an important role in down-regulating the expression of a particular set of TF and TR genes in response to low [CO2]. The results obtained provide new insights into the transcriptional control of the CCM and revealed more than 60 new candidate regulatory genes. Deep sequencing of nucleosome-depleted genomic regions indicated the presence of new, previously unknown regulatory elements in the C. reinhardtii genome. Our work can serve as a basis for future functional studies of transcriptional regulator genes and genomic regulatory elements in Chlamydomonas.
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    Cytoskeletal transition in patterned cells correlates with interfacial energy model
    (London [u.a.] : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) Müller, A.; Meyer, J.; Paumer, T.; Pompe, T.
    A cell's morphology is intricately regulated by microenvironmental cues and intracellular feedback signals. Besides biochemical factors, cell fate can be influenced by the mechanics and geometry of the surrounding matrix. The latter point was addressed herein, by studying cell adhesion on two-dimensional micropatterns. Endothelial cells were grown on maleic acid copolymer surfaces structured with stripes of fibronectin by microcontact printing. Experiments showed a biphasic behaviour of actin stress fibre spacing in dependence on the stripe width with a critical size of approx. 15 μm. In a concurrent modelling effort, cells on stripes were simulated as droplet-like structures, including variations of interfacial energy, total volume and dimensions of the nucleus. A biphasic behaviour with regard to cell morphology and area was found, triggered by the minimum of interfacial energy, with the phase transition occurring at a critical stripe width close to the critical stripe width found in the cell experiment. The correlation of experiment and simulation suggests a possible mechanism of the cytoskeletal rearrangements based on interfacial energy arguments.