Browsing by Author "Schmidt, O.G."
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- ItemArtificial micro-cinderella based on self-propelled micromagnets for the active separation of paramagnetic particles(Cambridge : RSC, 2013) Zhao, G.; Wang, H.; Sanchez, S.; Schmidt, O.G.; Pumera, M.In this work, we will show that ferromagnetic microjets can pick-up paramagnetic beads while not showing any interaction with diamagnetic silica microparticles for the active separation of microparticles in solution.
- ItemComposition profiling of inhomogeneous SiGe nanostructures by Raman spectroscopy(New York, NY [u.a.] : Springer, 2012) Picco, A.; Bonera, E.; Pezzoli, F.; Grilli, E.; Schmidt, O.G.; Isa, F.; Cecchi, S.; Guzzi, M.In this work, we present an experimental procedure to measure the composition distribution within inhomogeneous SiGe nanostructures. The method is based on the Raman spectra of the nanostructures, quantitatively analyzed through the knowledge of the scattering efficiency of SiGe as a function of composition and excitation wavelength. The accuracy of the method and its limitations are evidenced through the analysis of a multilayer and of self-assembled islands.
- ItemCoupling a single solid-state quantum emitter to an array of resonant plasmonic antennas(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Pfeiffer, M.; Atkinson, P.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Giessen, H.; Lippitz, M.; Lindfors, K.Plasmon resonant arrays or meta-surfaces shape both the incoming optical field and the local density of states for emission processes. They provide large regions of enhanced emission from emitters and greater design flexibility than single nanoantennas. This makes them of great interest for engineering optical absorption and emission. Here we study the coupling of a single quantum emitter, a self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot, to a plasmonic meta-surface. We investigate the influence of the spectral properties of the nanoantennas and the position of the emitter in the unit cell of the structure. We observe a resonant enhancement due to emitter-array coupling in the far-field regime and find a clear difference from the interaction of an emitter with a single antenna.
- ItemDisturbing-free determination of yeast concentration in DI water and in glucose using impedance biochips(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Kiani, M.; Du, N.; Vogel, M.; Raff, J.; Hübner, U.; Skorupa, I.; Bürger, D.; Schulz, S.E.; Schmidt, O.G.; Blaschke, D.; Schmidt, H.Deionized water and glucose without yeast and with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of optical density OD600 that ranges from 4 to 16 has been put in the ring electrode region of six different types of impedance biochips and impedance has been measured in dependence on the added volume (20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 µL). The measured impedance of two out of the six types of biochips is strongly sensitive to the addition of both liquid without yeast and liquid with yeast and modelled impedance reveals a linear relationship between the impedance model parameters and yeast concentration. The presented biochips allow for continuous impedance measurements without interrupting the cultivation of the yeast. A multiparameter fit of the impedance model parameters allows for determining the concentration of yeast (cy) in the range from cy = 3.3 × 107 to cy = 17 × 107 cells/mL. This work shows that independent on the liquid, i.e., DI water or glucose, the impedance model parameters of the two most sensitive types of biochips with liquid without yeast and with liquid with yeast are clearly distinguishable for the two most sensitive types of biochips.
- ItemExperimental methods of post-growth tuning of the excitonic fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots(New York, NY [u.a.] : Springer, 2012) Plumhof, J.D.; Trotta, R.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.Deterministic sources of polarization entangled photon pairs on demand are considered as important building blocks for quantum communication technology. It has been demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which exhibit a sufficiently small excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS) can be used as triggered, on-chip sources of polarization entangled photon pairs. As-grown QDs usually do not have the required values of the FSS, making the availability of post-growth tuning techniques highly desired. This article reviews the effect of different post-growth treatments and external fields on the FSS such as thermal annealing, magnetic fields, the optical Stark effect, electric fields, and anisotropic stress. As a consequence of the tuning of the FSS, for some tuning techniques a rotation of the polarization of the emitted light is observed. The joint modification of polarization orientation and FSS can be described by an anticrossing of the bright excitonic states.
- ItemFree-standing Fe2O3 nanomembranes enabling ultra-long cycling life and high rate capability for Li-ion batteries(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2014) Liu, X.; Si, W.; Zhang, J.; Sun, X.; Deng, J.; Baunack, S.; Oswald, S.; Liu, L.; Yan, C.; Schmidt, O.G.With Fe2O3 as a proof-of-concept, free-standing nanomembrane structure is demonstrated to be highly advantageous to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries. The Fe2O3 nanomembrane electrodes exhibit ultra-long cycling life at high current rates with satisfactory capacity (808 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 2 C and 530 mAh g-1 after 3000 cycles at 6 C) as well as repeatable high rate capability up to 50 C. The excellent performance benefits particularly from the unique structural advantages of the nanomembranes. The mechanical feature can buffer the strain of lithiation/delithiation to postpone the pulverization. The two-dimensional transport pathways in between the nanomembranes can promote the pseudo-capacitive type storage. The parallel-laid nanomembranes, which are coated by polymeric gel-like film and SEI layer with the electrolyte in between layers, electrochemically behave like numerous "mini-capacitors" to provide the pseudo-capacitance thus maintain the capacity at high rate.
- ItemA highly flexible and compact magnetoresistive analytic device(London [u.a.] : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) Lin, G.; Makarov, D.; Melzer, M.; Si, W.; Yan, C.; Schmidt, O.G.A grand vision of realization of smart and compact multifunctional microfluidic devices for wearable health monitoring, environment sensing and point-of-care tests emerged with the fast development of flexible electronics. As a vital component towards this vision, magnetic functionality in flexible fluidics is still missing although demanded by the broad utility of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine and biology. Here, we demonstrate the first flexible microfluidic analytic device with integrated high-performance giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. This device can be bent to a radius of 2 mm while still retaining its full performance. Various dimensions of magnetic emulsion droplets can be probed with high precision using a limit of detection of 0.5 pl, providing broad applicability in high-throughput droplet screening, flow cytometry and drug development. The flexible feature of this analytic device holds great promise in the realization of wearable, implantable multifunctional platforms for biomedical, pharmaceutical and chemical applications.
- ItemHighly indistinguishable and strongly entangled photons from symmetric GaAs quantum dots(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Huber, D.; Reindl, M.; Huo, Y.; Huang, H.; Wildmann, J.S.; Schmidt, O.G.; Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.The development of scalable sources of non-classical light is fundamental to unlocking the technological potential of quantum photonics. Semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as near-optimal sources of indistinguishable single photons. However, their performance as sources of entangled-photon pairs are still modest compared to parametric down converters. Photons emitted from conventional Stranski-Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots have shown non-optimal levels of entanglement and indistinguishability. For quantum networks, both criteria must be met simultaneously. Here, we show that this is possible with a system that has received limited attention so far: GaAs quantum dots. They can emit triggered polarization-entangled photons with high purity (g (2) (0) = 0.002±0.002), high indistinguishability (0.93±0.07 for 2 ns pulse separation) and high entanglement fidelity (0.94±0.01). Our results show that GaAs might be the material of choice for quantum-dot entanglement sources in future quantum technologies.
- ItemHighly-efficient extraction of entangled photons from quantum dots using a broadband optical antenna(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Chen, Y.; Zopf, M.; Keil, R.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O.G.Many quantum photonic technologies require the efficient generation of entangled pairs of photons, but to date there have been few ways to produce them reliably. Sources based on parametric down conversion operate at very low efficiency per pulse due to the probabilistic generation process. Semiconductor quantum dots can emit single pairs of entangled photons deterministically but they fall short due to the extremely low-extraction efficiency. Strategies for extracting single photons from quantum dots, such as embedding them in narrowband optical cavities, are difficult to translate to entangled photons. Here, we build a broadband optical antenna with an extraction efficiency of 65% ± 4% and demonstrate a highly-efficient entangled-photon source by collecting strongly entangled photons (fidelity of 0.9) at a pair efficiency of 0.372 ± 0.002 per pulse. The high brightness achieved by our source represents a step forward in the development of optical quantum technologies.
- ItemImaging of buried 3D magnetic rolled-up nanomembranes(Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 2014) Streubel, R.; Han, L.; Kronast, F.; Ünal, A.A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Makarov, D.Increasing performance and enabling novel functionalities of microelectronic devices, such as three-dimensional (3D) on-chip architectures in optics, electronics, and magnetics, calls for new approaches in both fabrication and characterization. Up to now, 3D magnetic architectures had mainly been studied by integral means without providing insight into local magnetic microstructures that determine the device performance. We prove a concept that allows for imaging magnetic domain patterns in buried 3D objects, for example, magnetic tubular architectures with multiple windings. The approach is based on utilizing the shadow contrast in transmission X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) photoemission electron microscopy and correlating the observed 2D projection of the 3D magnetic domains with simulated XMCD patterns. That way, we are not only able to assess magnetic states but also monitor the field-driven evolution of the magnetic domain patterns in individual windings of buried magnetic rolled-up nanomembranes.
- ItemImperceptible magnetic sensor matrix system integrated with organic driver and amplifier circuits(Washington : American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S), 2020) Kondo, M.; Melzer, M.; Karnaushenko, D.; Uemura, T.; Yoshimoto, S.; Akiyama, M.; Noda, Y.; Araki, T.; Schmidt, O.G.; Sekitani, T.Artificial electronic skins (e-skins) comprise an integrated matrix of flexible devices arranged on a soft, reconfigurable surface. These sensors must perceive physical interaction spaces between external objects and robots or humans. Among various types of sensors, flexible magnetic sensors and the matrix configuration are preferable for such position sensing. However, sensor matrices must efficiently map the magnetic field with real-time encoding of the positions and motions of magnetic objects. This paper reports an ultrathin magnetic sensor matrix system comprising a 2 × 4 array of magnetoresistance sensors, a bootstrap organic shift register driving the sensor matrix, and organic signal amplifiers integrated within a single imperceptible platform. The system demonstrates high magnetic sensitivity owing to the use of organic amplifiers. Moreover, the shift register enabled real-time mapping of 2D magnetic field distribution.
- ItemIncreased static dielectric constant in ZnMnO and ZnCoO thin films with bound magnetic polarons(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2020) Vegesna, S.V.; Bhat, V.J.; Bürger, D.; Dellith, J.; Skorupa, I.; Schmidt, O.G.; Schmidt, H.A novel small signal equivalent circuit model is proposed in the inversion regime of metal/(ZnO, ZnMnO, and ZnCoO) semiconductor/Si3N4 insulator/p-Si semiconductor (MSIS) structures to describe the distinctive nonlinear frequency dependent capacitance (C-F) and conductance (G-F) behaviour in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. We modelled the fully depleted ZnO thin films to extract the static dielectric constant (εr) of ZnO, ZnMnO, and ZnCoO. The extracted enhancement of static dielectric constant in magnetic n-type conducting ZnCoO (εr ≥ 13.0) and ZnMnO (εr ≥ 25.8) in comparison to unmagnetic ZnO (εr = 8.3–9.3) is related to the electrical polarizability of donor-type bound magnetic polarons (BMP) in the several hundred GHz range (120 GHz for CdMnTe). The formation of donor-BMP is enabled in n-type conducting, magnetic ZnO by the s-d exchange interaction between the electron spin of positively charged oxygen vacancies Vo+ in the BMP center and the electron spins of substitutional Mn2+ and Co2+ ions in ZnMnO and ZnCoO, respectively. The BMP radius scales with the Bohr radius which is proportional to the static dielectric constant. Here we show how BMP overlap can be realized in magnetic n-ZnO by increasing its static dielectric constant and guide researchers in the field of transparent spintronics towards ferromagnetism in magnetic, n-ZnO.
- ItemIntegrated sensitive on-chip ion field effect transistors based on wrinkled ingaas nanomembranes(New York, NY [u.a.] : Springer, 2011) Harazim, S.M.; Feng, P.; Sanchez, S.; Deneke, C.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, O.G.Self-organized wrinkling of pre-strained nanomembranes into nanochannels is used to fabricate a fully integrated nanofluidic device for the development of ion field effect transistors (IFETs). Constrained by the structure and shape of the membrane, the deterministic wrinkling process leads to a versatile variation of channel types such as straight two-way channels, three-way branched channels, or even four-way intersection channels. The fabrication of straight channels is well controllable and offers the opportunity to integrate multiple IFET devices into a single chip. Thus, several IFETs are fabricated on a single chip using a III-V semiconductor substrate to control the ion separation and to measure the ion current of a diluted potassium chloride electrolyte solution.
- ItemKey concepts behind forming-free resistive switching incorporated with rectifying transport properties(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Shuai, Y.; Ou, X.; Luo, W.; Mücklich, A.; Bürger, D.; Zhou, S.; Wu, C.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, W.; Helm, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Schmidt, O.G.; Schmidt, H.This work reports the effect of Ti diffusion on the bipolar resistive switching in Au/BiFeO 3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures. Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures on Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si substrates. From the energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry it is observed that Ti diffusion occurs if the deposition temperature is above 600 C. The current-voltage (I-V) curves indicate that resistive switching can only be achieved in Au/BiFeO 3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures where this Ti diffusion occurs. The effect of Ti diffusion is confirmed by the BiFeO 3 thin films deposited on Pt/sapphire and Pt/Ti/sapphire substrates. The resistive switching needs no electroforming process, and is incorporated with rectifying properties which is potentially useful to suppress the sneak current in a crossbar architecture. Those specific features open a promising alternative concept for nonvolatile memory devices as well as for other memristive devices like synapses in neuromorphic circuits.
- ItemMagnetic Micromotors for Multiple Motile Sperm Cells Capture, Transport, and Enzymatic Release(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2020) Xu, H.; Medina-Sánchez, M.; Schmidt, O.G.An integrated system combining a magnetically-driven micromotor and a synthetized protein-based hyaluronic acid (HA) microflake is presented for the in situ selection and transport of multiple motile sperm cells (ca. 50). The system appeals for targeted sperm delivery in the reproductive system to assist fertilization or to deliver drugs. The binding mechanism between the HA microflake and sperm relies on the interactions between HA and the corresponding sperm HA receptors. Once sperm are captured within the HA microflake, the assembly is trapped and transported by a magnetically-driven helical microcarrier. The trapping of the sperm-microflake occurs by a local vortex induced by the microcarrier during rotation-translation under a rotating magnetic field. After transport, the microflake is enzymatically hydrolyzed by local proteases, allowing sperm to escape and finally reach the target location. This cargo-delivery system represents a new concept to transport not only multiple motile sperm but also other actively moving biological cargoes.
- ItemMagnetic origami creates high performance micro devices(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Gabler, F.; Karnaushenko, D.D.; Karnaushenko, D.; Schmidt, O.G.Self-assembly of two-dimensional patterned nanomembranes into three-dimensional micro-architectures has been considered a powerful approach for parallel and scalable manufacturing of the next generation of micro-electronic devices. However, the formation pathway towards the final geometry into which two-dimensional nanomembranes can transform depends on many available degrees of freedom and is plagued by structural inaccuracies. Especially for high-aspect-ratio nanomembranes, the potential energy landscape gives way to a manifold of complex pathways towards misassembly. Therefore, the self-assembly yield and device quality remain low and cannot compete with state-of-the art technologies. Here we present an alternative approach for the assembly of high-aspect-ratio nanomembranes into microelectronic devices with unprecedented control by remotely programming their assembly behavior under the influence of external magnetic fields. This form of magnetic Origami creates micro energy storage devices with excellent performance and high yield unleashing the full potential of magnetic field assisted assembly for on-chip manufacturing processes.
- ItemMagnetoresistive emulsion analyzer(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Lin, G.; Baraban, L.; Han, L.; Karnaushenko, D.; Makarov, D.; Cuniberti, G.; Schmidt, O.G.We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.
- ItemMagnetosensitive e-skins with directional perception for augmented reality(Washington : American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S), 2018) Cañón Bermúdez, G.S.; Karnaushenko, D.D.; Karnaushenko, D.; Lebanov, A.; Bischoff, L.; Kaltenbrunner, M.; Fassbender, J.; Schmidt, O.G.; Makarov, D.Electronic skins equipped with artificial receptors are able to extend our perception beyond the modalities that have naturally evolved. These synthetic receptors offer complimentary information on our surroundings and endow us with novel means of manipulating physical or even virtual objects. We realize highly compliant magnetosensitive skins with directional perception that enable magnetic cognition, body position tracking, and touchless object manipulation. Transfer printing of eight high-performance spin valve sensors arranged into two Wheatstone bridges onto 1.7-mm-thick polyimide foils ensures mechanical imperceptibility. This resembles a new class of interactive devices extracting information from the surroundings through magnetic tags. We demonstrate this concept in augmented reality systems with virtual knob-turning functions and the operation of virtual dialing pads, based on the interaction with magnetic fields. This technology will enable a cornucopia of applications from navigation, motion tracking in robotics, regenerative medicine, and sports and gaming to interaction in supplemented reality.
- ItemPhotoactive rolled-up TiO2 microtubes: Fabrication, characterization and applications(London [u.a.] : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) Giudicatti, S.; Marz, S.M.; Soler, L.; Madani, A.; Jorgensen, M.R.; Sanchez, S.; Schmidt, O.G.Because of its unique properties, titania (TiO2) represents a promising candidate in a wide variety of research fields. In this paper, some of the properties and potential applications of titania within rolled-up nanotechnology are explored. It is shown how the structural and optical properties of rolled titania microtubes can be controlled by properly tuning the microfabrication parameters. The rolling up of titania films on different sacrificial layers and containing different shapes, achieving a control on the diameter of the fabricated titania microtubes, is presented. In order to obtain the more photoactive crystalline form of titania, one during-fabrication and two post-fabrication methods are demonstrated. Interesting applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photonics are suggested: the use of titania rolled-up microtubes as micromotors and optical microresonators is presented.
- ItemPoisoning of bubble propelled catalytic micromotors: The chemical environment matters(Cambridge [u.a.] : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013) Zhao, G.; Sanchez, S.; Schmidt, O.G.; Pumera, M.Self-propelled catalytic microjets have attracted considerable attention in recent years and these devices have exhibited the ability to move in complex media. The mechanism of propulsion is via the Pt catalysed decomposition of H2O2 and it is understood that the Pt surface is highly susceptible to poisoning by sulphur-containing molecules. Here, we show that important extracellular thiols as well as basic organic molecules can significantly hamper the motion of catalytic microjet engines. This is due to two different mechanisms: (i) molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide can quench the hydroxyl radicals produced at Pt surfaces and reduce the amount of oxygen gas generated and (ii) molecules containing -SH, -SSR, and -SCH3 moieties can poison the catalytically active platinum surface, inhibiting the motion of the jet engines. It is essential that the presence of such molecules in the environment be taken into consideration for future design and operation of catalytic microjet engines. We show this effect on catalytic micromotors prepared by both rolled-up and electrodeposition approaches, demonstrating that such poisoning is universal for Pt catalyzed micromotors. We believe that our findings will contribute significantly to this field to develop alternative systems or catalysts for self-propulsion when practical applications in the real environment are considered.