- ItemExtruded polycarbonate/Di-Allyl phthalate composites with ternary conductive filler system for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Naji, Ahmed; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Ameli, AmirHere, we report multifunctional polycarbonate (PC)-based conductive polymer composites (CPCs) with outstanding performance manufactured by a simple extrusion process and intended for use in bipolar plate (BPP) applications in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. CPCs were developed using a ternary conductive filler system containing carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon fiber (CF), and graphite (G) and by introducing di-allyl phthalate (DAP) as a plasticizer to PC matrix. The samples were fabricated using twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding and the microstructure, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed a good dispersion of the fillers with some degree of interconnection between dissimilar fillers. The addition of DAP enhanced the electrical conductivity and tensile strength of the CPCs. Due to its plasticizing effect, DAP reduced the processing temperature by 75 °C and facilitated the extrusion of CPCs with filler loads as high as 63 wt% (3 wt% CNT, 30 wt% CF, 30 wt% G). Consequently, CPCs with the through-plane electrical, in-plane electrical and thermal conductivities and tensile strength of 4.2 S cm-1, 34.3 S cm-1, 2.9 W m-1 K-1, and 75.4 MPa, respectively, were achieved. This combination of properties indicates the potential of PC-based composites enriched with hybrid fillers and plasticizers as an alternative material for BPP application.
- ItemMessanlage zur Untersuchung des Seebeck-Effektes in Polymermaterialien(Berlin : De Gruyter, 2020) Jenschke, Wolfgang; Ullrich, Mathias; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe thermoelectric effect named after the physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck has been investigated sufficiently well for all technically relevant metals and has been used for a long time, among other things, for temperature measurement by means of thermocouples. Less well known and researched is the Seebeck effect in polymer materials, which are gaining increasing influence in the sensor industry today. This article describes a measuring system designed specifically to study the Seebeck effect in polymeric samples with the aim of developing tailored polymers for sensory engineering applications using the Seebeck effect. The special requirement of the measuring system is the realization of constant accurate temperature sources.
- ItemGraphite modified epoxy-based adhesive for joining of aluminium and PP/graphite composites(New York, NY [u.a.] : Taylor & Francis, 2020) Rzeczkowski, P.; Pötschke, Petra; Fischer, M.; Kühnert, I.; Krause, BeateA graphite-modified adhesive was developed in order to simultaneously enhance the thermal conductivity and the strength of an adhesive joint. The thermal conductivity through the joint was investigated by using highly filled PP/graphite composite substrates, which were joined with an epoxy adhesive of different layer thicknesses. Similar measurements were carried out with a constant adhesive layer thickness, whilst applying an epoxy adhesive modified with expanded graphite (EG) (6, 10, and 20 wt%). By reducing the adhesive layer thickness or modifying the adhesive with conductive fillers, a significant increase of the thermal conductivity through the joint was achieved. The examination of the mechanical properties of the modified adhesives was carried out by tensile tests (adhesive only), lap-shear tests, and fracture energy tests (mode 1) with aluminium substrates. Modification of the adhesive with EG led to an increase of the tensile lap-shear strength and the adhesive fracture energy (mode 1) of the joint. In addition, burst pressure tests were performed to determine the strength of the joint in a complex component. The strength of the joint increased with the graphite content in the PP substrate and in the epoxy adhesive.
- ItemMelt mixed composites of polypropylene with singlewalled carbon nanotubes for thermoelectric applications: Switching from p- to n-type behavior by additive addition(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Pötschke; Petra; Krause, Beate; Luo, JinjiComposites were prepared with polypropylene (PP) as the matrix and singlewalled CNTs (SWCNTs) of the type TUBALL from OCSiAl Ltd. as the conducting component by melt processing in a small-scale twin-screw compounder. In order to switch the typical p-type behavior of such composites from positive Seebeck coefficients (S) into n-type behavior with negative Seebeck coefficients, a non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether (Brij58) was used and compared with a PEG additive, which was shown previously to be able to induce such switching. For PP-2 wt% SWCNT composites Brij58 is shown to result in n-type composites. The negative S values (up to −48.2 µV/K) are not as high as in the case of previous results using PEG (−56.6 µV/K). However, due to the more pronounced effect of Brij58 on the electrical conductivity, the achieved power factors are higher and reach a maximum of 0.144 µW/(m·K2) compared to previous 0.078 µW/(m·K2) with PEG. Dispersion improvement depends on the type of SWCNTs obtained by using varied synthesis/treatment conditions. Solution prepared composites of PEG with SWCNTs also have negative S values, indicating the donation of electrons from PEG to the SWCNTs. However, such composites are brittle and not suitable as thermoelectric materials.
- ItemEffect of additives on MWCNT dispersion and electrical percolation in polyamide 12 composites(Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe aim of this study was to decrease the electrical percolation threshold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polyamide 12 matrix by the use of additives. Different kinds of additives were selected which either interact with the π-system of the MWCNTs (imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)) or improve the MWCNT wettability (cyclic butylene terephthalate, CBT). The composites were melt mixed using a DACA microcompounder. The electrical percolation threshold for PA12/MWCNT without additives, measured on compression molded plates, was found between 2.0 and 2.25 wt%. With all used additives, a significant reduction of the electrical percolation threshold could be achieved. Whereas the addition of IL and CBT resulted in MWCNT percolation at around 1.0 wt%, a slightly higher percolation threshold between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% was found for PTCDA as an additive. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity at higher loadings was decreased by nearly two decades when using CBT and one decade after application of PTCDA, whereas IL did not contribute to lower values in this range. In all cases macrodispersion as assessed by light microscopy was not improved and even worse as compared to non-modified composites. In summary, the results illustrate that these kinds of additives are able to improve the performance of PA12 based MWCNT nanocomposites.