Chemie

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    Acoustic resonance effects and cavitation in SAW aerosol generation
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2023) Roudini, Mehrzad; Manuel Rosselló, Juan; Manor, Ofer; Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Winkler, Andreas
    The interaction of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with liquids enables the production of aerosols with adjustable droplet sizes in the micrometer range expelled from a very compact source. Understanding the nonlinear acousto-hydrodynamics of SAWs with a regulated micro-scale liquid film is essential for acousto-microfluidics platforms, particularly aerosol generators. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of micro-cavitation in a MHz-frequency SAW aerosol generation platform, which is touted as a leap in aerosol technology with versatile application fields including biomolecule inhalation therapy, micro-chromatography and spectroscopy, olfactory displays, and material deposition. Using analysis methods with high temporal and spatial resolution, we demonstrate that SAWs stabilize spatially arranged liquid micro-domes atop the generator's surface. Our experiments show that these liquid domes become acoustic resonators with highly fluctuating pressure amplitudes that can even nucleate cavitation bubbles, as supported by analytical modeling. The observed fragmentation of liquid domes indicates the participation of three droplet generation mechanisms, including cavitation and capillary-wave instabilities. During aerosol generation, the cavitation bubbles contribute to the ejection of droplets from the liquid domes and also explain observed microstructural damage patterns on the chip surface eventually caused by cavitation-based erosion.
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    Facile one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of a zinc oxide/curcumin nanocomposite with enhanced toxic activity against breast cancer cells
    (London : RSC Publishing, 2023) Madeo, Lorenzo Francesco; Schirmer, Christine; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Froeschke, Samuel; Hantusch, Martin; Curcio, Manuela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Büchner, Bernd; Mertig, Michael; Hampel, Silke
    Zinc oxide/Curcumin (Zn(CUR)O) nanocomposites were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of Zn(NO3)2 in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine as a stabilizing agent and CUR as a bioactive element. Three ZnO : CUR ratios were investigated, namely 57 : 43 (Zn(CUR)O-A), 60 : 40 (Zn(CUR)O-B) and 81 : 19 (Zn(CUR)O-C), as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoaggregates in the range of 223 to 361 nm. The interaction of CUR with ZnO via hydroxyl and ketoenol groups (as proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses) was found to significantly modify the key properties of ZnO nanoparticles with the obtainment of a bilobed shape (as shown by scanning electron microscopy), and influenced the growth process of the composite nanoparticles as indicated by the varying particle sizes determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The efficacy of Zn(CUR)O as anticancer agents was evaluated on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, obtaining a synergistic activity with a cell viability depending on the CUR amount within the nanocomposite. Finally, the determination of reactive oxygen species production in the presence of Zn(CUR)O was used as a preliminary evaluation of the mechanism of action of the nanocomposites.
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    Continuous wet chemical synthesis of Mo(C,N,O)x as anode materials for Li-ion batteries
    (London [u.a.] : RSC, 2023) Abdirahman Mohamed, Mana; Arnold, Stefanie; Janka, Oliver; Quade, Antje; Schmauch, Jörg; Presser, Volker; Kickelbick, Guido
    Molybdenum carbides, oxides, and mixed anionic carbide–nitride–oxides Mo(C,N,O)x are potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Here we present the preparation of hybrid inorganic–organic precursors by a precipitation reaction of ammonium heptamolybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24) with para-phenylenediamine in a continuous wet chemical process known as a microjet reactor. The mixing ratio of the two components has a crucial influence on the chemical composition of the obtained material. Pyrolysis of the precipitated precursor compounds preserved the size and morphology of the micro- to nanometer-sized starting materials. Changes in pyrolysis conditions such as temperature and time resulted in variations of the final compositions of the products, which consisted of mixtures of Mo(C,N,O)x, MoO2, Mo2C, Mo2N, and Mo. We optimized the reaction conditions to obtain carbide-rich phases. When evaluated as an anode material for application in lithium-ion battery half-cells, one of the optimized materials shows a remarkably high capacity of 933 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles. The maximum capacity is reached after an activation process caused by various conversion reactions with lithium.
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    A Highly Active Cobalt Catalyst for the General and Selective Hydrogenation of Aromatic Heterocycles
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) Bauer, Christof; Müller, Felix; Keskin, Sercan; Zobel, Mirijam; Kempe, Rhett
    Nanostructured earth abundant metal catalysts that mediate important chemical reactions with high efficiency and selectivity are of great interest. This study introduces a synthesis protocol for nanostructured earth abundant metal catalysts. Three components, an inexpensive metal precursor, an easy to synthesize N/C precursor, and a porous support material undergo pyrolysis to give the catalyst material in a simple, single synthesis step. By applying this catalyst synthesis, a highly active cobalt catalyst for the general and selective hydrogenation of aromatic heterocycles could be generated. The reaction is important with regard to organic synthesis and hydrogen storage. The mild reaction conditions observed for quinolines permit the selective hydrogenation of numerous classes of N-, O- and S-heterocyclic compounds such as: quinoxalines, pyridines, pyrroles, indoles, isoquinoline, aciridine amine, phenanthroline, benzofuranes, and benzothiophenes.
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    NFDI4Chem - A Research Data Network for International Chemistry
    (Berlin : De Gruyter, 2023) Steinbeck, Christoph; Koepler, Oliver; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja; Bach, Felix; Jung, Nicole; Razum, Matthias; Liermann, Johannes C.; Neumann, Steffen
    Research data provide evidence for the validation of scientific hypotheses in most areas of science. Open access to them is the basis for true peer review of scientific results and publications. Hence, research data are at the heart of the scientific method as a whole. The value of openly sharing research data has by now been recognized by scientists, funders and politicians. Today, new research results are increasingly obtained by drawing on existing data. Many organisations such as the Research Data Alliance (RDA), the goFAIR initiative, and not least IUPAC are supporting and promoting the collection and curation of research data. One of the remaining challenges is to find matching data sets, to understand them and to reuse them for your own purpose. As a consequence, we urgently need better research data management.