A Scalable Four-Channel Frequency-Division Multiplexing MIMO Radar Utilizing Single-Sideband Delta-Sigma Modulation
A scalable four-channel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar that features a modular system architecture and a novel frequency-division multiplexing approach is presented in this article. It includes a single 30-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) for the local oscillator signal generation, four cascaded 120-GHz transceivers with a frequency quadrupler, and on-board differential series-fed patch antennas. The utilized uniform antenna configuration results in 16 virtual array elements and enables an angular resolution of 6.2°. The vector modulators in the transmit (TX) paths allow the application of complex bit streams of second-order delta-sigma modulators easily generated on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement single-sideband (SSB) modulation on the TX signals resulting in orthogonal waveforms for the MIMO operation. Only one phase-locked loop and no digital-To-Analog converter is required. The waveform diversity also allows the simultaneous transmission of the TX signals to reduce the measurement time. The application of the SSB modulation on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave MIMO radar requires only half of the intermediate frequency bandwidth compared with the double-sideband modulation. The issue of the phase and amplitude mismatches at the virtual array elements due to the scalable radar architecture is addressed and a calibration solution is introduced in this article. Radar measurements using different numbers of virtual array elements were compared and the digital-beamforming method was applied to the results to create 2-D images. © 1963-2012 IEEE.