The link between coherence echoes and mode locking
We investigate the appearance of sharp pulses in the mean field of Kuramoto-type globally- coupled phase oscillator systems. In systems with exactly equidistant natural frequencies self- organized periodic pulsations of the mean field, called mode locking, have been described re- cently as a new collective dynamics below the synchronization threshold. We show here that mode locking can appear also for frequency combs with modes of finite width, where the natu- ral frequencies are randomly chosen from equidistant frequency intervals. In contrast to that, so called coherence echoes, which manifest themselves also as pulses in the mean field, have been found in systems with completely disordered natural frequencies as the result of two consecutive stimulations applied to the system. We show that such echo pulses can be explained by a stimula- tion induced mode locking of a subpopulation representing a frequency comb. Moreover, we find that the presence of a second harmonic in the interaction function, which can lead to the global stability of the mode-locking regime for equidistant natural frequencies, can enhance the echo phenomenon significantly. The non-monotonous behavior of echo amplitudes can be explained as a result of the linear dispersion within the self-organized mode-locked frequency comb. Fi- nally we investigate the effect of small periodic stimulations on oscillator systems with disordered natural frequencies and show how the global coupling can support the stimulated pulsation by increasing the width of locking plateaus.