Spatial, temporal and source contribution assessments of black carbon over the northern interior of South Africa

dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage6177
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue10
dc.bibliographicCitation.lastPage6196
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume17
dc.contributor.authorChiloane, Kgaugelo Euphinia
dc.contributor.authorBeukes, Johan Paul
dc.contributor.authorvan Zyl, Pieter Gideon
dc.contributor.authorMaritz, Petra
dc.contributor.authorVakkari, Ville
dc.contributor.authorJosipovic, Miroslav
dc.contributor.authorVenter, Andrew Derick
dc.contributor.authorJaars, Kerneels
dc.contributor.authorTiitta, Petri
dc.contributor.authorKulmala, Markku
dc.contributor.authorWiedensohler, Alfred
dc.contributor.authorLiousse, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorMkhatshwa, Gabisile Vuyisile
dc.contributor.authorRamandh, Avishkar
dc.contributor.authorLaakso, Lauri
dc.date.accessioned2023-03-07T10:42:54Z
dc.date.available2023-03-07T10:42:54Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.description.abstractAfter carbon dioxide (CO2), aerosol black carbon (BC) is considered to be the second most important contributor to global warming. This paper presents equivalent black carbon (eBC) (derived from an optical absorption method) data collected from three sites in the interior of South Africa where continuous measurements were conducted, i.e. Elandsfontein, Welgegund and Marikana, as well elemental carbon (EC) (determined by evolved carbon method) data at five sites where samples were collected once a month on a filter and analysed offline, i.e. Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Vaal Triangle, Amersfoort and Botsalano. Analyses of eBC and EC spatial mass concentration patterns across the eight sites indicate that the mass concentrations in the South African interior are in general higher than what has been reported for the developed world and that different sources are likely to influence different sites. The mean eBC or EC mass concentrations for the background sites (Welgegund, Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Botsalano) and sites influenced by industrial activities and/or nearby settlements (Elandsfontein, Marikana, Vaal Triangle and Amersfoort) ranged between 0.7 and 1.1, and 1.3 and 1.4 μg m-3, respectively. Similar seasonal patterns were observed at all three sites where continuous measurement data were collected (Elandsfontein, Marikana and Welgegund), with the highest eBC mass concentrations measured from June to October, indicating contributions from household combustion in the cold winter months (June-August), as well as savannah and grassland fires during the dry season (May to mid-October). Diurnal patterns of eBC at Elandsfontein, Marikana and Welgegund indicated maximum concentrations in the early mornings and late evenings, and minima during daytime. From the patterns it could be deduced that for Marikana and Welgegund, household combustion, as well as savannah and grassland fires, were the most significant sources, respectively. Possible contributing sources were explored in greater detail for Elandsfontein, with five main sources being identified as coal-fired power stations, pyrometallurgical smelters, traffic, household combustion, as well as savannah and grassland fires. Industries on the Mpumalanga Highveld are often blamed for all forms of pollution, due to the NO2 hotspot over this area that is attributed to NOx emissions from industries and vehicle emissions from the Johannesburg. Pretoria megacity. However, a comparison of source strengths indicated that household combustion as well as savannah and grassland fires were the most significant sources of eBC, particularly during winter and spring months, while coal-fired power stations, pyrometallurgical smelters and traffic contribute to eBC mass concentration levels year round.eng
dc.description.versionpublishedVersioneng
dc.identifier.urihttps://oa.tib.eu/renate/handle/123456789/11717
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.34657/10750
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherKatlenburg-Lindau : EGU
dc.relation.doihttps://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-6177-2017
dc.relation.essn1680-7324
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAtmospheric chemistry and physics 17 (2017), Nr. 10
dc.rights.licenseCC BY 3.0 Unported
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
dc.subjectaerosoleng
dc.subjectblack carboneng
dc.subjectcarbon dioxideeng
dc.subjectcarbon emissioneng
dc.subjectconcentration (composition)eng
dc.subjectglobal warmingeng
dc.subjectnitrous oxideeng
dc.subjectseasonal variationeng
dc.subjectSouth Africaeng
dc.subject.ddc550
dc.titleSpatial, temporal and source contribution assessments of black carbon over the northern interior of South Africaeng
dc.typearticle
dc.typeText
dcterms.bibliographicCitation.journalTitleAtmospheric chemistry and physics
tib.accessRightsopenAccess
wgl.contributorTROPOS
wgl.subjectGeowissenschaftenger
wgl.typeZeitschriftenartikelger
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